Unifying Decision-Making: a Review on Evolutionary Theories on Rationality and Cognitive Biases

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this paper, we make a review on the concepts of rationality across several different fields, namely in economics, psychology and evolutionary biology and behavioural ecology. We review how processes like natural selection can help us understand the evolution of cognition and how cognitive biases might be a consequence of this natural selection. In the end we argue that humans are not irrational, but rather rationally bounded and we complement the discussion on how quantum cognitive models can contribute for the modelling and prediction of human paradoxical decisions.


Introducing Quantum-Like Influence Diagrams for Violations of the Sure Thing Principle

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

It is the focus of this work to extend and study the previously proposed quantum-like Bayesian networks to deal with decision-making scenarios by incorporating the notion of maximum expected utility in influence diagrams. The general idea is to take advantage of the quantum interference terms produced in the quantum-like Bayesian Network to influence the probabilities used to compute the expected utility of some action. This way, we are not proposing a new type of expected utility hypothesis. On the contrary, we are keeping it under its classical definition. We are only incorporating it as an extension of a probabilistic graphical model in a compact graphical representation called an influence diagram in which the utility function depends on the probabilistic influences of the quantum-like Bayesian network. Our findings suggest that the proposed quantum-like influence digram can indeed take advantage of the quantum interference effects of quantum-like Bayesian Networks to maximise the utility of a cooperative behaviour in detriment of a fully rational defect behaviour under the prisoner's dilemma game.


Reconciling Irrational Human Behavior with AI based Decision Making: A Quantum Probabilistic Approach

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

There are many examples of human decision making which cannot be modeled by classical probabilistic and logic models, on which the current AI systems are based. Hence the need for a modeling framework which can enable intelligent systems to detect and predict cognitive biases in human decisions to facilitate better human-agent interaction. We give a few examples of irrational behavior and use a generalized probabilistic model inspired by the mathematical framework of Quantum Theory to model and explain such behavior.


Quantum Interaction Approach in Cognition, Artificial Intelligence and Robotics

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics has been successfully employed in the last years to model situations in which the use of classical structures gives rise to problematical situations, and where typically quantum effects, such as 'contextuality' and 'entanglement', have been recognized. This 'Quantum Interaction Approach' is briefly reviewed in this paper focusing, in particular, on the quantum models that have been elaborated to describe how concepts combine in cognitive science, and on the ensuing identification of a quantum structure in human thought. We point out that these results provide interesting insights toward the development of a unified theory for meaning and knowledge formalization and representation. Then, we analyze the technological aspects and implications of our approach, and a particular attention is devoted to the connections with symbolic artificial intelligence, quantum computation and robotics.


Quantum aspects of high dimensional formal representation of conceptual spaces

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Human cognition is a complex process facilitated by the intricate architecture of human brain. However, human cognition is often reduced to quantum theory based events in principle because of their correlative conjectures for the purpose of analysis for reciprocal understanding. In this paper, we begin our analysis of human cognition via formal methods and proceed towards quantum theories. Human cognition often violate classic probabilities on which formal representation of conceptual spaces are built. Further, geometric representation of conceptual spaces proposed by Gardenfors discusses the underlying content but lacks a systematic approach (Gardenfors, 2000; Kitto et. al, 2012). However, the aforementioned views are not contradictory but different perspective with a gap towards sufficient understanding of human cognitive process. A comprehensive and systematic approach to model a relatively complex scenario can be addressed by vector space approach of conceptual spaces as discussed in literature. In this research, we have proposed an approach that uses both formal representation and Gardenfors geometric approach. The proposed model of high dimensional formal representation of conceptual space is mathematically analysed and inferred to exhibit quantum aspects. Also, the proposed model achieves cognition, in particular, consciousness. We have demonstrated this process of achieving consciousness with a constructive learning scenario. We have also proposed an algorithm for conceptual scaling of a real world scenario under different quality dimensions to obtain a conceptual scale.