In this paper, we make a review on the concepts of rationality across several different fields, namely in economics, psychology and evolutionary biology and behavioural ecology. We review how processes like natural selection can help us understand the evolution of cognition and how cognitive biases might be a consequence of this natural selection. In the end we argue that humans are not irrational, but rather rationally bounded and we complement the discussion on how quantum cognitive models can contribute for the modelling and prediction of human paradoxical decisions.
It is the focus of this work to extend and study the previously proposed quantum-like Bayesian networks to deal with decision-making scenarios by incorporating the notion of maximum expected utility in influence diagrams. The general idea is to take advantage of the quantum interference terms produced in the quantum-like Bayesian Network to influence the probabilities used to compute the expected utility of some action. This way, we are not proposing a new type of expected utility hypothesis. On the contrary, we are keeping it under its classical definition. We are only incorporating it as an extension of a probabilistic graphical model in a compact graphical representation called an influence diagram in which the utility function depends on the probabilistic influences of the quantum-like Bayesian network. Our findings suggest that the proposed quantum-like influence digram can indeed take advantage of the quantum interference effects of quantum-like Bayesian Networks to maximise the utility of a cooperative behaviour in detriment of a fully rational defect behaviour under the prisoner's dilemma game.
Understanding quantum interferences is essential to the study of chemical reaction dynamics. Here, we provide an interesting case of quantum interference between two topologically distinct pathways in the H HD H2 D reaction in the collision energy range between 1.94 and 2.21 eV, manifested as oscillations in the energy dependence of the differential cross section for the H2 (v′ 2, j′ 3) product (where v′ is the vibrational quantum number and j′ is the rotational quantum number) in the backward scattering direction. The notable oscillation patterns observed are attributed to the strong quantum interference between the direct abstraction pathway and an unusual roaming insertion pathway. More interestingly, the observed interference pattern also provides a sensitive probe of the geometric phase effect at an energy far below the conical intersection in this reaction, which resembles the Aharonov–Bohm effect in physics, clearly demonstrating the quantum nature of chemical reactivity.
We elaborate a quantum model for the meaning associated with corpora of written documents, like the pages forming the World Wide Web. To that end, we are guided by how physicists constructed quantum theory for microscopic entities, which unlike classical objects cannot be fully represented in our spatial theater. We suggest that a similar construction needs to be carried out by linguists and computational scientists, to capture the full meaning carried by collections of documental entities. More precisely, we show how to associate a quantum-like 'entity of meaning' to a 'language entity formed by printed documents', considering the latter as the collection of traces that are left by the former, in specific results of search actions that we describe as measurements. In other words, we offer a perspective where a collection of documents, like the Web, is described as the space of manifestation of a more complex entity - the QWeb - which is the object of our modeling, drawing its inspiration from previous studies on operational-realistic approaches to quantum physics and quantum modeling of human cognition and decision-making. We emphasize that a consistent QWeb model needs to account for the observed correlations between words appearing in printed documents, e.g., co-occurrences, as the latter would depend on the 'meaning connections' existing between the concepts that are associated with these words. In that respect, we show that both 'context and interference (quantum) effects' are required to explain the probabilities calculated by counting the relative number of documents containing certain words and co-ocurrrences of words.
Thirty years ago, Len Mandel, together with his students Jeff Ou and C. K. Hong, published a description of a remarkably simple experiment (1), the consequences of which have had dramatic implications for quantum science and technology. The experiment consisted of sending two elementary particles of light, photons, onto opposite sides of a piece of glass that had been coated with a thin film to give it a reflectivity of 50% (see the figure). They observed that the two photons always left by the same side at the output, though it was not possible to determine beforehand which side that would be. This is completely surprising if one considers the behavior of particles as indivisible, identical entities obeying the laws of classical physics. It is easy to see that in such a circumstance, one might expect there to be four equally likely output configurations, only two of which consist of the particles occupying the same outputs.