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A Review of Real-Time Strategy Game AI

AI Magazine

This literature review covers AI techniques used for real-time strategy video games, focusing specifically on StarCraft. It finds that the main areas of current academic research are in tactical and strategic decision-making, plan recognition, and learning, and it outlines the research contributions in each of these areas. The paper then contrasts the use of game AI in academia and industry, finding the academic research heavily focused on creating game-winning agents, while the indus- try aims to maximise player enjoyment. It finds the industry adoption of academic research is low because it is either in- applicable or too time-consuming and risky to implement in a new game, which highlights an area for potential investi- gation: bridging the gap between academia and industry. Fi- nally, the areas of spatial reasoning, multi-scale AI, and co- operation are found to require future work, and standardised evaluation methods are proposed to produce comparable re- sults between studies.


Goal Recognition in Incomplete STRIPS Domain Models

AAAI Conferences

Recent approaches to goal recognition have progressively relaxed the assumptions about the amount and correctness of domain knowledge and available observations, yielding accurate and efficient algorithms. These approaches, however, assume completeness and correctness of the domain theory against which their algorithms match observations: this is too strong for most real-world domains. In this paper, we develop a goal recognition technique capable of recognizing goals using incomplete (and possibly incorrect) domain theories as well as noisy observations. Such recognition needs to cope with a much larger space of plan hypotheses consistent with observations. We show the efficiency and accuracy of our approach empirically against a large dataset of goal recognition problems with incomplete domains.


New Polynomial Classes for Logic-Based Abduction

AAAI Conferences

We address the problem of propositional logic-based abduction, i.e., the problem of searching for a best explanation for a given propositional observation according to a given propositional knowledge base. We give a general algorithm, based on the notion of projection; then we study restrictions over the representations of the knowledge base and of the query, and find new polynomial classes of abduction problems.


Heuristic Approaches for Goal Recognition in Incomplete Domain Models

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Recent approaches to goal recognition have progressively relaxed the assumptions about the amount and correctness of domain knowledge and available observations, yielding accurate and efficient algorithms. These approaches, however, assume completeness and correctness of the domain theory against which their algorithms match observations: this is too strong for most real-world domains. In this paper, we develop goal recognition techniques that are capable of recognizing goals using \textit{incomplete} (and possibly incorrect) domain theories. We show the efficiency and accuracy of our approaches empirically against a large dataset of goal and plan recognition problems with incomplete domains.


Landmark-Based Heuristics for Goal Recognition

AAAI Conferences

Automated planning can be used to efficiently recognize goals and plans from partial or full observed action sequences. In this paper, we propose goal recognition heuristics that rely on information from planning landmarks - facts or actions that must occur if a plan is to achieve a goal when starting from some initial state. We develop two such heuristics: the first estimates goal completion by considering the ratio between achieved and extracted landmarks of a candidate goal, while the second takes into account how unique each landmark is among landmarks for all candidate goals. We empirically evaluate these heuristics over both standard goal/plan recognition problems, and a set of very large problems. We show that our heuristics can recognize goals more accurately, and run orders of magnitude faster, than the current state-of-the-art.