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A Review of Real-Time Strategy Game AI

AI Magazine

This literature review covers AI techniques used for real-time strategy video games, focusing specifically on StarCraft. It finds that the main areas of current academic research are in tactical and strategic decision-making, plan recognition, and learning, and it outlines the research contributions in each of these areas. The paper then contrasts the use of game AI in academia and industry, finding the academic research heavily focused on creating game-winning agents, while the indus- try aims to maximise player enjoyment. It finds the industry adoption of academic research is low because it is either in- applicable or too time-consuming and risky to implement in a new game, which highlights an area for potential investi- gation: bridging the gap between academia and industry. Fi- nally, the areas of spatial reasoning, multi-scale AI, and co- operation are found to require future work, and standardised evaluation methods are proposed to produce comparable re- sults between studies.


Goal Recognition over Imperfect Domain Models

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Goal recognition is the problem of recognizing the intended goal of autonomous agents or humans by observing their behavior in an environment. Over the past years, most existing approaches to goal and plan recognition have been ignoring the need to deal with imperfections regarding the domain model that formalizes the environment where autonomous agents behave. In this thesis, we introduce the problem of goal recognition over imperfect domain models, and develop solution approaches that explicitly deal with two distinct types of imperfect domains models: (1) incomplete discrete domain models that have possible, rather than known, preconditions and effects in action descriptions; and (2) approximate continuous domain models, where the transition function is approximated from past observations and not well-defined. We develop novel goal recognition approaches over imperfect domains models by leveraging and adapting existing recognition approaches from the literature. Experiments and evaluation over these two types of imperfect domains models show that our novel goal recognition approaches are accurate in comparison to baseline approaches from the literature, at several levels of observability and imperfections.


Heuristic Approaches for Goal Recognition in Incomplete Domain Models

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Recent approaches to goal recognition have progressively relaxed the assumptions about the amount and correctness of domain knowledge and available observations, yielding accurate and efficient algorithms. These approaches, however, assume completeness and correctness of the domain theory against which their algorithms match observations: this is too strong for most real-world domains. In this paper, we develop goal recognition techniques that are capable of recognizing goals using \textit{incomplete} (and possibly incorrect) domain theories. We show the efficiency and accuracy of our approaches empirically against a large dataset of goal and plan recognition problems with incomplete domains.


Recognizing LTLf/PLTLf Goals in Fully Observable Non-Deterministic Domain Models

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Goal Recognition is the task of discerning the correct intended goal that an agent aims to achieve, given a set of possible goals, a domain model, and a sequence of observations as a sample of the plan being executed in the environment. Existing approaches assume that the possible goals are formalized as a conjunction in deterministic settings. In this paper, we develop a novel approach that is capable of recognizing temporally extended goals in Fully Observable Non-Deterministic (FOND) planning domain models, focusing on goals on finite traces expressed in Linear Temporal Logic (LTLf) and (Pure) Past Linear Temporal Logic (PLTLf). We empirically evaluate our goal recognition approach using different LTLf and PLTLf goals over six common FOND planning domain models, and show that our approach is accurate to recognize temporally extended goals at several levels of observability.


Landmark-Based Plan Recognition

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Recognition of goals and plans using incomplete evidence from action execution can be done efficiently by using planning techniques. In many applications it is important to recognize goals and plans not only accurately, but also quickly. In this paper, we develop a heuristic approach for recognizing plans based on planning techniques that rely on ordering constraints to filter candidate goals from observations. These ordering constraints are called landmarks in the planning literature, which are facts or actions that cannot be avoided to achieve a goal. We show the applicability of planning landmarks in two settings: first, we use it directly to develop a heuristic-based plan recognition approach; second, we refine an existing planning-based plan recognition approach by pre-filtering its candidate goals. Our empirical evaluation shows that our approach is not only substantially more accurate than the state-of-the-art in all available datasets, it is also an order of magnitude faster.