Landmark-Based Heuristics for Goal Recognition

AAAI Conferences

Automated planning can be used to efficiently recognize goals and plans from partial or full observed action sequences. In this paper, we propose goal recognition heuristics that rely on information from planning landmarks - facts or actions that must occur if a plan is to achieve a goal when starting from some initial state. We develop two such heuristics: the first estimates goal completion by considering the ratio between achieved and extracted landmarks of a candidate goal, while the second takes into account how unique each landmark is among landmarks for all candidate goals. We empirically evaluate these heuristics over both standard goal/plan recognition problems, and a set of very large problems. We show that our heuristics can recognize goals more accurately, and run orders of magnitude faster, than the current state-of-the-art.


Landmark-Based Plan Recognition

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Recognition of goals and plans using incomplete evidence from action execution can be done efficiently by using planning techniques. In many applications it is important to recognize goals and plans not only accurately, but also quickly. In this paper, we develop a heuristic approach for recognizing plans based on planning techniques that rely on ordering constraints to filter candidate goals from observations. These ordering constraints are called landmarks in the planning literature, which are facts or actions that cannot be avoided to achieve a goal. We show the applicability of planning landmarks in two settings: first, we use it directly to develop a heuristic-based plan recognition approach; second, we refine an existing planning-based plan recognition approach by pre-filtering its candidate goals. Our empirical evaluation shows that our approach is not only substantially more accurate than the state-of-the-art in all available datasets, it is also an order of magnitude faster.


Goal Recognition in Incomplete STRIPS Domain Models

AAAI Conferences

Recent approaches to goal recognition have progressively relaxed the assumptions about the amount and correctness of domain knowledge and available observations, yielding accurate and efficient algorithms. These approaches, however, assume completeness and correctness of the domain theory against which their algorithms match observations: this is too strong for most real-world domains. In this paper, we develop a goal recognition technique capable of recognizing goals using incomplete (and possibly incorrect) domain theories as well as noisy observations. Such recognition needs to cope with a much larger space of plan hypotheses consistent with observations. We show the efficiency and accuracy of our approach empirically against a large dataset of goal recognition problems with incomplete domains.


Goal Recognition in Incomplete Domain Models

AAAI Conferences

Recent approaches to goal recognition have progressively relaxed the assumptions about the amount and correctness of domain knowledge and available observations, yielding accurate and efficient algorithms. These approaches, however, assume completeness and correctness of the domain theory against which their algorithms match observations: this is too strong for most real-world domains. In this work, we develop a goal recognition technique capable of recognizing goals using incomplete (and possibly incorrect) domain theories.


Online Goal Recognition as Reasoning over Landmarks

AAAI Conferences

Online goal recognition is the problem of recognizing the goal of an agent based on an incomplete sequence of observations with as few observations as possible. Recognizing goals with minimal domain knowledge as an agent executes its plan requires efficient algorithms to sift through a large space of hypotheses. We develop an online approach to recognize goals in both continuous and discrete domains using a combination of goal mirroring and a generalized notion of landmarks adapted from the planning literature. Extensive experiments demonstrate the approach is more efficient and substantially more accurate than the state-of-the-art.