Analyzing encircling situation is the most crucial part of autonomous adaptation. Since there are many unknown and constantly changing factors in the real environment, momentary adjustment to the consistently alternating circumstances is highly required for addressing autonomy. To respond properly to changing environment, an utterly self-ruling vehicle ought to have the capacity to realize/comprehend its particular position and the surrounding environment. However, these vehicles extremely rely on human involvement to resolve entangled missions that cannot be precisely characterized in advance, which restricts their applications and accuracy. Reducing dependence on human supervision can be achieved by improving level of autonomy. Over the previous decades, autonomy and mission planning have been extensively researched on different structures and diverse conditions; nevertheless, aiming at robust mission planning in extreme conditions, here we provide exhaustive study of UVs autonomy as well as its related properties in internal and external situation awareness. In the following discussion, different difficulties in the scope of AUVs and UAVs will be discussed.
You have access to this full article to experience the outstanding content available to SPE members and JPT subscribers. To ensure continued access to JPT's content, please Sign In, JOIN SPE, or Subscribe to JPT Marine mining initiatives open a new field of subsea operations. Offshore oil and gas sites are still located primarily in areas where divers can support maintenance and repair requirements, but future marine mining will take place in greater depths and with a complexity of machines that requires support from robotic systems equipped with a substantial amount of artificial intelligence (AI). Technologies are being developed that have the potential to support marine mining in all stages from prospection to decommissioning. These developments will likely have substantial influence in the oil and gas industry, itself searching for ways to maximize exploitation of assets.
Human-robot teaming offers great potential because of the opportunities to combine strengths of heterogeneous agents. However, one of the critical challenges in realizing an effective human-robot team is efficient information exchange - both from the human to the robot as well as from the robot to the human. In this work, we present and analyze an augmented reality-enabled, gesture-based system that supports intuitive human-robot teaming through improved information exchange. Our proposed system requires no external instrumentation aside from human-wearable devices and shows promise of real-world applicability for service-oriented missions. Additionally, we present preliminary results from a pilot study with human participants, and highlight lessons learned and open research questions that may help direct future development, fielding, and experimentation of autonomous HRI systems.
Agha, Ali, Otsu, Kyohei, Morrell, Benjamin, Fan, David D., Thakker, Rohan, Santamaria-Navarro, Angel, Kim, Sung-Kyun, Bouman, Amanda, Lei, Xianmei, Edlund, Jeffrey, Ginting, Muhammad Fadhil, Ebadi, Kamak, Anderson, Matthew, Pailevanian, Torkom, Terry, Edward, Wolf, Michael, Tagliabue, Andrea, Vaquero, Tiago Stegun, Palieri, Matteo, Tepsuporn, Scott, Chang, Yun, Kalantari, Arash, Chavez, Fernando, Lopez, Brett, Funabiki, Nobuhiro, Miles, Gregory, Touma, Thomas, Buscicchio, Alessandro, Tordesillas, Jesus, Alatur, Nikhilesh, Nash, Jeremy, Walsh, William, Jung, Sunggoo, Lee, Hanseob, Kanellakis, Christoforos, Mayo, John, Harper, Scott, Kaufmann, Marcel, Dixit, Anushri, Correa, Gustavo, Lee, Carlyn, Gao, Jay, Merewether, Gene, Maldonado-Contreras, Jairo, Salhotra, Gautam, Da Silva, Maira Saboia, Ramtoula, Benjamin, Fakoorian, Seyed, Hatteland, Alexander, Kim, Taeyeon, Bartlett, Tara, Stephens, Alex, Kim, Leon, Bergh, Chuck, Heiden, Eric, Lew, Thomas, Cauligi, Abhishek, Heywood, Tristan, Kramer, Andrew, Leopold, Henry A., Choi, Chris, Daftry, Shreyansh, Toupet, Olivier, Wee, Inhwan, Thakur, Abhishek, Feras, Micah, Beltrame, Giovanni, Nikolakopoulos, George, Shim, David, Carlone, Luca, Burdick, Joel
This paper presents and discusses algorithms, hardware, and software architecture developed by the TEAM CoSTAR (Collaborative SubTerranean Autonomous Robots), competing in the DARPA Subterranean Challenge. Specifically, it presents the techniques utilized within the Tunnel (2019) and Urban (2020) competitions, where CoSTAR achieved 2nd and 1st place, respectively. We also discuss CoSTAR's demonstrations in Martian-analog surface and subsurface (lava tubes) exploration. The paper introduces our autonomy solution, referred to as NeBula (Networked Belief-aware Perceptual Autonomy). NeBula is an uncertainty-aware framework that aims at enabling resilient and modular autonomy solutions by performing reasoning and decision making in the belief space (space of probability distributions over the robot and world states). We discuss various components of the NeBula framework, including: (i) geometric and semantic environment mapping; (ii) a multi-modal positioning system; (iii) traversability analysis and local planning; (iv) global motion planning and exploration behavior; (i) risk-aware mission planning; (vi) networking and decentralized reasoning; and (vii) learning-enabled adaptation. We discuss the performance of NeBula on several robot types (e.g. wheeled, legged, flying), in various environments. We discuss the specific results and lessons learned from fielding this solution in the challenging courses of the DARPA Subterranean Challenge competition.
For tasks that need to be accomplished in unconstrained environments, as in the case of Urban Search and Rescue (USAR), human-robot collaboration is considered as an indispensable component. Collaboration is based on accurate models of robot and human perception consistent with one another, so that exchange of information critical to the accomplishment of a task is performed efficiently and in a simplified fashion to minimize the interaction overhead. In this paper, we highlight the features of a human-robot team, i.e. how robot perception may be combined with human perception based on a task-driven direction for USAR. We elaborate on the design of the components of a mixed-initiative system wherein a task assigned to the robot is planned and executed jointly with the human operator as a result of their interaction. Our description is solidified by demonstrating the application of mixed-initiative planning in a number of examples related to the morphological adaptation of the rescue robot.