Recent advances in machine learning have led to an acceleration of interest in research on artificial intelligence (AI). This fostered the exploration of possible applications of AI in various domains and also prompted critical discussions addressing the lack of interpretability, the limits of machine intelligence, potential risks and social challenges. In the exploration of the settings of the "human versus AI" relationship, perhaps the most elusive domain of interest is the creation and understanding of art. Many interesting initiatives are emerging at the intersection of AI and art, however comprehension and appreciation of art is still considered to be an exclusively human capability. Rooted in the idea that the existence and meaning of art is indeed inseparable from human-to-human interaction, the motivation behind this paper is to explore how bringing AI in the loop can foster not only advances in the fields of digital art and art history, but also inspire our perspectives on the future of art. The variety of activities and research initiatives related to "AI and Art" can generally be divided into two categories: 1) AI is used in the process of analyzing existing art; or 2) AI is used in the process of creating new art. In this paper, relevant aspects and contributions of these two categories are discussed, with a particular focus on the relation of AI to visual arts. In recent years, there has been a surge of interest among artists, technologists and researchers in exploring the creative potential of AI technologies. The use of AI in the process of creating visual art was significantly accelerated with the emergence of Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) .
This paper reviews the current state of the art in Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies and applications in the context of the creative industries. A brief background of AI, and specifically Machine Learning (ML) algorithms, is provided including Convolutional Neural Network (CNNs), Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs), Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) and Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL). We categorise creative applications into five groups related to how AI technologies are used: i) content creation, ii) information analysis, iii) content enhancement and post production workflows, iv) information extraction and enhancement, and v) data compression. We critically examine the successes and limitations of this rapidly advancing technology in each of these areas. We further differentiate between the use of AI as a creative tool and its potential as a creator in its own right. We foresee that, in the near future, machine learning-based AI will be adopted widely as a tool or collaborative assistant for creativity. In contrast, we observe that the successes of machine learning in domains with fewer constraints, where AI is the `creator', remain modest. The potential of AI (or its developers) to win awards for its original creations in competition with human creatives is also limited, based on contemporary technologies. We therefore conclude that, in the context of creative industries, maximum benefit from AI will be derived where its focus is human centric -- where it is designed to augment, rather than replace, human creativity.
In recent years, machine learning (ML) systems have been increasingly applied for performing creative tasks. Such creative ML approaches have seen wide use in the domains of visual art and music for applications such as image and music generation and style transfer. However, similar creative ML techniques have not been as widely adopted in the domain of game design despite the emergence of ML-based methods for generating game content. In this paper, we argue for leveraging and repurposing such creative techniques for designing content for games, referring to these as approaches for Game Design via Creative ML (GDCML). We highlight existing systems that enable GDCML and illustrate how creative ML can inform new systems via example applications and a proposed system.
Liapis, Antonios (Technical University of Copenhagen) | Cook, Michael (Goldsmiths College London) | Smith, Adam M. (University of Washington) | Smith, Gillian (Northeastern University) | Zook, Alexander (Georgia Institute of Technology) | Si, Mei (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute) | Cavazza, Marc (Teesside University) | Pasquier, Philippe (Simon Fraser University)
The workshop was accompanied by an evening Games are unique in that their components event, DAGGER, which drew together local game developers (from the rules and goals of the game to the appearance and academic research projects. Acting both of avatars and their dialogue) must encompass as an exhibition and as an informal gathering, the both functional and aesthetic prerequisites. Artificial DAGGER event allowed attendees to interact directly intelligence usually focuses on the functional quality with a wide variety of game types and technologies, of such game components, for example, ensuring as well as with their developers. As events such that an avatar can traverse a level in minimal time or as DAGGER help bridge the gap between theoretical that AI can win over any human in a strategy game. The papers avatar, or level would appeal to a particular player. of the workshop were published as AAAI Technical The Workshop on AI and Game Aesthetics provided Report WS-13-19.
Workshops were held on the two days prior to the start of the main conference, giving attendees a chance to hold indepth discussions on topics that complement the themes of the main conference program. This year the workshops included the First Workshop on AI and Game Aesthetics (1 day), the Second Workshop on AI in the Game Design Process (1 day), the Second International Workshop on Musical Metacreation (2 day), and the Sixth Workshop on Intelligent Narrative Technologies (2 day). The goal of the Second Workshop on AI in the Game Design Process was to encourage the use of AI in enhancing the process of designing games and to enable new kinds of games that would be unreachable without intelligent automation. The Second International Workshop on Musical Metacreation brought together leading researchers, and practitioners investigating the design, development, and evaluation of computational systems for the autonomous generation of music. This report summarizes and highlights these three workshops.