This paper is to consider the problems of estimation and recognition from the perspective of sigma-max inference (probability-possibility inference), with a focus on discovering whether some of the unknown quantities involved could be more faithfully modeled as fuzzy uncertainty. Two related key issues are addressed: 1) the random-fuzzy dual interpretation of unknown quantity being estimated; 2) the principle of selecting sigma-max operator for practical problems, such as estimation and recognition. Our perspective, conceived from definitions of randomness and fuzziness, is that continuous unknown quantity involved in estimation with inaccurate prior should be more appropriately modeled as randomness and handled by sigma inference; whereas discrete unknown quantity involved in recognition with insufficient (and inaccurate) prior could be better modeled as fuzziness and handled by max inference. The philosophy was demonstrated by an updated version of the well-known interacting multiple model (IMM) filter, for which the jump Markovian System is reformulated as a hybrid uncertainty system, with continuous state evolution modeled as usual as model-conditioned stochastic system and discrete mode transitions modeled as fuzzy system by a possibility (instead of probability) transition matrix, and hypotheses mixing is conducted by using the operation of "max" instead of "sigma". For our example of maneuvering target tracking using simulated data from both a short-range fire control radar and a long-range surveillance radar, the updated IMM filter shows significant improvement over the classic IMM filter, due to its peculiarity of hard decision of system model and a faster response to the transition of discrete mode.
This contribution reviews critically the existing entropy measures for probabilistic hesitant fuzzy sets (PHFSs), and demonstrates that these entropy measures fail to effectively distinguish a variety of different PHFSs in some cases. In the sequel, we develop a new axiomatic framework of entropy measures for probabilistic hesitant fuzzy elements (PHFEs) by considering two facets of uncertainty associated with PHFEs which are known as fuzziness and non-specificity. Respect to each kind of uncertainty, a number of formulae are derived to permit flexible selection of PHFE entropy measures. Moreover, based on the proposed PHFE entropy measures, we introduce some entropy-based distance measures which are used in the portion of comparative analysis. Eventually, the proposed PHFE entropy measures and PHFE entropy-based distance measures are applied to decision making in the strategy initiatives where their reliability and effectiveness are verified. Keywords: Probabilistic hesitant fuzzy set, Entropy measure, Multiple criteria decision making.
FRI methods are less popular in the practical application domain. One possible reason is the missing common framework. There are many FRI methods developed independently, having different interpolation concepts and features. One trial for setting up a common FRI framework was the MATLAB FRI Toolbox, developed by Johany\'ak et. al. in 2006. The goals of this paper are divided as follows: firstly, to present a brief introduction of the FRI methods. Secondly, to introduce a brief description of the refreshed and extended version of the original FRI Toolbox. And thirdly, to use different unified numerical benchmark examples to evaluate and analyze the Fuzzy Rule Interpolation Techniques (FRI) (KH, KH Stabilized, MACI, IMUL, CRF, VKK, GM, FRIPOC, LESFRI, and SCALEMOVE), that will be classified and compared based on different features by following the abnormality and linearity conditions .
Important advances have been made in the fuzzy quantification field. Nevertheless, some problems remain when we face the decision of selecting the most convenient model for a specific application. In the literature, several desirable adequacy properties have been proposed, but theoretical limits impede quantification models from simultaneously fulfilling every adequacy property that has been defined. Besides, the complexity of model definitions and adequacy properties makes very difficult for real users to understand the particularities of the different models that have been presented. In this work we will present several criteria conceived to help in the process of selecting the most adequate Quantifier Fuzzification Mechanisms for specific practical applications. In addition, some of the best known well-behaved models will be compared against this list of criteria. Based on this analysis, some guidance to choose fuzzy quantification models for practical applications will be provided.
In this paper, we take a new look at the possibilistic c-means (PCM) and adaptive PCM (APCM) clustering algorithms from the perspective of uncertainty. This new perspective offers us insights into the clustering process, and also provides us greater degree of flexibility. We analyze the clustering behavior of PCM-based algorithms and introduce parameters $\sigma_v$ and $\alpha$ to characterize uncertainty of estimated bandwidth and noise level of the dataset respectively. Then uncertainty (fuzziness) of membership values caused by uncertainty of the estimated bandwidth parameter is modeled by a conditional fuzzy set, which is a new formulation of the type-2 fuzzy set. Experiments show that parameters $\sigma_v$ and $\alpha$ make the clustering process more easy to control, and main features of PCM and APCM are unified in this new clustering framework (UPCM). More specifically, UPCM reduces to PCM when we set a small $\alpha$ or a large $\sigma_v$, and UPCM reduces to APCM when clusters are confined in their physical clusters and possible cluster elimination are ensured. Finally we present further researches of this paper.