Thompson sampling, a Bayesian method for balancing exploration and exploitation in bandit problems, has theoretical guarantees and exhibits strong empirical performance in many domains. Traditional Thompson sampling, however, assumes perfect compliance, where an agent's chosen action is treated as the implemented action. This article introduces a stochastic noncompliance model that relaxes this assumption. We prove that any noncompliance in a 2-armed Bernoulli bandit increases existing regret bounds. With our noncompliance model, we derive Thompson sampling variants that explicitly handle both observed and latent noncompliance. With extensive empirical analysis, we demonstrate that our algorithms either match or outperform traditional Thompson sampling in both compliant and noncompliant environments.

Schmit, Sven, Shah, Virag, Johari, Ramesh

Motivated by the widespread adoption of large-scale A/B testing in industry, we propose a new experimentation framework for the setting where potential experiments are abundant (i.e., many hypotheses are available to test), and observations are costly; we refer to this as the experiment-rich regime. Such scenarios require the experimenter to internalize the opportunity cost of assigning a sample to a particular experiment. We fully characterize the optimal policy and give an algorithm to compute it. Furthermore, we develop a simple heuristic that also provides intuition for the optimal policy. We use simulations based on real data to compare both the optimal algorithm and the heuristic to other natural alternative experimental design frameworks. In particular, we discuss the paradox of power: high-powered classical tests can lead to highly inefficient sampling in the experiment-rich regime.

We consider the multi armed bandit problem in non-stationary environments. Based on the Bayesian method, we propose a variant of Thompson Sampling which can be used in both rested and restless bandit scenarios. Applying discounting to the parameters of prior distribution, we describe a way to systematically reduce the effect of past observations. Further, we derive the exact expression for the probability of picking sub-optimal arms. By increasing the exploitative value of Bayes' samples, we also provide an optimistic version of the algorithm. Extensive empirical analysis is conducted under various scenarios to validate the utility of proposed algorithms. A comparison study with various state-of-the-arm algorithms is also included.

I analyse the frequentist regret of the famous Gittins index strategy for multi-armed bandits with Gaussian noise and a finite horizon. Remarkably it turns out that this approach leads to finite-time regret guarantees comparable to those available for the popular UCB algorithm. Along the way I derive finite-time bounds on the Gittins index that are asymptotically exact and may be of independent interest. I also discuss some computational issues and present experimental results suggesting that a particular version of the Gittins index strategy is a modest improvement on existing algorithms with finite-time regret guarantees such as UCB and Thompson sampling.

Thompson Sampling is one of the oldest heuristics for multi-armed bandit problems. It is a randomized algorithm based on Bayesian ideas, and has recently generated significant interest after several studies demonstrated it to have better empirical performance compared to the state-of-the-art methods. However, many questions regarding its theoretical performance remained open. In this paper, we design and analyze a generalization of Thompson Sampling algorithm for the stochastic contextual multi-armed bandit problem with linear payoff functions, when the contexts are provided by an adaptive adversary. This is among the most important and widely studied versions of the contextual bandits problem. We provide the first theoretical guarantees for the contextual version of Thompson Sampling. We prove a high probability regret bound of $\tilde{O}(d^{3/2}\sqrt{T})$ (or $\tilde{O}(d\sqrt{T \log(N)})$), which is the best regret bound achieved by any computationally efficient algorithm available for this problem in the current literature, and is within a factor of $\sqrt{d}$ (or $\sqrt{\log(N)}$) of the information-theoretic lower bound for this problem.