Starting with the Thomspon sampling algorithm, recent years have seen a resurgence ofinterest in Bayesian algorithms for the Multi-armed Bandit (MAB) problem. These algorithms seek to exploit prior information on arm biases and while several have been shown to be regret optimal, their design has not emerged from a principled approach. In contrast, if one cared about Bayesian regret discounted over an infinite horizon at a fixed, pre-specified rate, the celebrated Gittins index theorem offers an optimal algorithm. Unfortunately, the Gittins analysis does not appear to carry over to minimizing Bayesian regret over all sufficiently large horizons and computing a Gittins index is onerous relative to essentially any incumbent index scheme for the Bayesian MAB problem. The present paper proposes a sequence of'optimistic' approximations to the Gittins index. We show that the use of these approximations in concert with the use of an increasing discount factor appears to offer a compelling alternative to state-of-the-art index schemes proposed for the Bayesian MAB problem in recent years by offering substantially improved performance with little to no additional computational overhead. In addition, we prove that the simplest of these approximations yields frequentist regret that matches the Lai-Robbins lower bound, including achieving matching constants.
Thompson Sampling, one of the oldest heuristics for solving multi-armed bandits, has recently been shown to demonstrate state-of-the-art performance. The empirical success has led to great interests in theoretical understanding of this heuristic. In this paper, we approach this problem in a way very different from existing efforts. In particular, motivated by the connection between Thompson Sampling and exponentiated updates, we propose a new family of algorithms called Generalized Thompson Sampling in the expert-learning framework, which includes Thompson Sampling as a special case. Similar to most expert-learning algorithms, Generalized Thompson Sampling uses a loss function to adjust the experts' weights. General regret bounds are derived, which are also instantiated to two important loss functions: square loss and logarithmic loss. In contrast to existing bounds, our results apply to quite general contextual bandits. More importantly, they quantify the effect of the "prior" distribution on the regret bounds.
Over the past few years, the multi-armed bandit model has become increasingly popular in the machine learning community, partly because of applications including online content optimization. This paper reviews two different sequential learning tasks that have been considered in the bandit literature ; they can be formulated as (sequentially) learning which distribution has the highest mean among a set of distributions, with some constraints on the learning process. For both of them (regret minimization and best arm identification) we present recent, asymptotically optimal algorithms. We compare the behaviors of the sampling rule of each algorithm as well as the complexity terms associated to each problem.
Adaptive and sequential experiment design is a well-studied area in numerous domains. We survey and synthesize the work of the online statistical learning paradigm referred to as multi-armed bandits integrating the existing research as a resource for a certain class of online experiments. We first explore the traditional stochastic model of a multi-armed bandit, then explore a taxonomic scheme of complications to that model, for each complication relating it to a specific requirement or consideration of the experiment design context. Finally, at the end of the paper, we present a table of known upper-bounds of regret for all studied algorithms providing both perspectives for future theoretical work and a decision-making tool for practitioners looking for theoretical guarantees.
We propose information-directed sampling -- a new algorithm for online optimization problems in which a decision-maker must balance between exploration and exploitation while learning from partial feedback. Each action is sampled in a manner that minimizes the ratio between the square of expected single-period regret and a measure of information gain: the mutual information between the optimal action and the next observation. We establish an expected regret bound for information-directed sampling that applies across a very general class of models and scales with the entropy of the optimal action distribution. For the widely studied Bernoulli and linear bandit models, we demonstrate simulation performance surpassing popular approaches, including upper confidence bound algorithms, Thompson sampling, and knowledge gradient. Further, we present simple analytic examples illustrating that information-directed sampling can dramatically outperform upper confidence bound algorithms and Thompson sampling due to the way it measures information gain.