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Graph Convolutional Networks with EigenPooling

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Graph neural networks, which generalize deep neural network models to graph structured data, have attracted increasing attention in recent years. They usually learn node representations by transforming, propagating and aggregating node features and have been proven to improve the performance of many graph related tasks such as node classification and link prediction. To apply graph neural networks for the graph classification task, approaches to generate the \textit{graph representation} from node representations are demanded. A common way is to globally combine the node representations. However, rich structural information is overlooked. Thus a hierarchical pooling procedure is desired to preserve the graph structure during the graph representation learning. There are some recent works on hierarchically learning graph representation analogous to the pooling step in conventional convolutional neural (CNN) networks. However, the local structural information is still largely neglected during the pooling process. In this paper, we introduce a pooling operator $\pooling$ based on graph Fourier transform, which can utilize the node features and local structures during the pooling process. We then design pooling layers based on the pooling operator, which are further combined with traditional GCN convolutional layers to form a graph neural network framework $\m$ for graph classification. Theoretical analysis is provided to understand $\pooling$ from both local and global perspectives. Experimental results of the graph classification task on $6$ commonly used benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.


DAGCN: Dual Attention Graph Convolutional Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Graph convolutional networks (GCNs) have recently become one of the most powerful tools for graph analytics tasks in numerous applications, ranging from social networks and natural language processing to bioinformatics and chemoinformatics, thanks to their ability to capture the complex relationships between concepts. At present, the vast majority of GCNs use a neighborhood aggregation framework to learn a continuous and compact vector, then performing a pooling operation to generalize graph embedding for the classification task. These approaches have two disadvantages in the graph classification task: (1)when only the largest sub-graph structure ($k$-hop neighbor) is used for neighborhood aggregation, a large amount of early-stage information is lost during the graph convolution step; (2) simple average/sum pooling or max pooling utilized, which loses the characteristics of each node and the topology between nodes. In this paper, we propose a novel framework called, dual attention graph convolutional networks (DAGCN) to address these problems. DAGCN automatically learns the importance of neighbors at different hops using a novel attention graph convolution layer, and then employs a second attention component, a self-attention pooling layer, to generalize the graph representation from the various aspects of a matrix graph embedding. The dual attention network is trained in an end-to-end manner for the graph classification task. We compare our model with state-of-the-art graph kernels and other deep learning methods. The experimental results show that our framework not only outperforms other baselines but also achieves a better rate of convergence.


Learning Graph-Level Representations with Gated Recurrent Neural Networks

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Recently a variety of methods have been developed to encode graphs into low-dimensional vectors that can be easily exploited by machine learning algorithms. The majority of these methods start by embedding the graph nodes into a low-dimensional vector space, followed by using some scheme to aggregate the node embeddings. In this work, we develop a new approach to learn graph-level representations, which includes a combination of unsupervised and supervised learning components. We start by learning a set of global node representations in an unsupervised fashion, followed by a strategy to map the graph nodes into sequences of node-neighbor pairs. Gated recurrent neural network (RNN) units are modified to accommodate both the node representations as well as their neighborhood information. Experiments on standard graph classification benchmarks demonstrate that our proposed approach achieves superior or comparable performance relative to the state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of convergence speed and classification accuracy. We further illustrate the effectiveness of the different components used by our approach.


Graph-Revised Convolutional Network

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Graph Convolutional Networks (GCNs) have received increasing attention in the machine learning community for effectively leveraging both the content features of nodes and the linkage patterns across graphs in various applications. As real-world graphs are often incomplete and noisy, treating them as ground-truth information, which is a common practice in most GCNs, unavoidably leads to sub-optimal solutions. Existing efforts for addressing this problem either involve an over-parameterized model which is difficult to scale, or simply re-weight observed edges without dealing with the missing-edge issue. This paper proposes a novel framework called Graph-Revised Convolutional Network (GRCN), which avoids both extremes. Specifically, a GCN-based graph revision module is introduced for predicting missing edges and revising edge weights w.r.t. downstream tasks via joint optimization. A theoretical analysis reveals the connection between GRCN and previous work on multigraph belief propagation. Experiments on six benchmark datasets show that GRCN consistently outperforms strong baseline methods by a large margin, especially when the original graphs are severely incomplete or the labeled instances for model training are highly sparse.


Function Space Pooling For Graph Convolutional Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Many real world data such as social networks, collections of documents and chemical structures are naturally represented as graphs. Consequently there exists great potential for the application of machine learning to graphs. Given the great successes of neural networks or deep learning to the analysis of images, there has recently been much research considering the application or generalization of neural networks to graphs. In many cases this has resulted in state of the art performance in many tasks (Wu et al., 2019). Graph convolutional is a neural network architecture commonly applied to graphs. This architecture consists of a sequence of convolutional layers where each layer iteratively updates a representation or embedding of each vertex. This update is achieved through the application of an operation which considers the current representation of each vertex plus the current representation of its adjacent neighbours (Gilmer et al., 2017). The output of a sequence of convolutional layers is a representation of each vertex which encodes properties of the vertex in question and vertices in its neighbourhood. If one wishes to perform a vertex centric task such as vertex classification, then one may operate directly on the set of vertex representations output from a sequence of convolutional layers.