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Learning Features of Music from Scratch

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This paper introduces a new large-scale music dataset, MusicNet, to serve as a source of supervision and evaluation of machine learning methods for music research. MusicNet consists of hundreds of freely-licensed classical music recordings by 10 composers, written for 11 instruments, together with instrument/note annotations resulting in over 1 million temporal labels on 34 hours of chamber music performances under various studio and microphone conditions. The paper defines a multi-label classification task to predict notes in musical recordings, along with an evaluation protocol, and benchmarks several machine learning architectures for this task: i) learning from spectrogram features; ii) end-to-end learning with a neural net; iii) end-to-end learning with a convolutional neural net. These experiments show that end-to-end models trained for note prediction learn frequency selective filters as a low-level representation of audio.




Continuous Melody Generation via Disentangled Short-Term Representations and Structural Conditions

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Automatic music generation is an interdisciplinary research topic that combines computational creativity and semantic analysis of music to create automatic machine improvisations. An important property of such a system is allowing the user to specify conditions and desired properties of the generated music. In this paper we designed a model for composing melodies given a user specified symbolic scenario combined with a previous music context. We add manual labeled vectors denoting external music quality in terms of chord function that provides a low dimensional representation of the harmonic tension and resolution. Our model is capable of generating long melodies by regarding 8-beat note sequences as basic units, and shares consistent rhythm pattern structure with another specific song. The model contains two stages and requires separate training where the first stage adopts a Conditional Variational Autoencoder (C-VAE) to build a bijection between note sequences and their latent representations, and the second stage adopts long short-term memory networks (LSTM) with structural conditions to continue writing future melodies. We further exploit the disentanglement technique via C-VAE to allow melody generation based on pitch contour information separately from conditioning on rhythm patterns. Finally, we evaluate the proposed model using quantitative analysis of rhythm and the subjective listening study. Results show that the music generated by our model tends to have salient repetition structures, rich motives, and stable rhythm patterns. The ability to generate longer and more structural phrases from disentangled representations combined with semantic scenario specification conditions shows a broad application of our model.


A holistic approach to polyphonic music transcription with neural networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We present a framework based on neural networks to extract music scores directly from polyphonic audio in an end-to-end fashion. Most previous Automatic Music Transcription (AMT) methods seek a piano-roll representation of the pitches, that can be further transformed into a score by incorporating tempo estimation, beat tracking, key estimation or rhythm quantization. Unlike these methods, our approach generates music notation directly from the input audio in a single stage. For this, we use a Convolutional Recurrent Neural Network (CRNN) with Connectionist Temporal Classification (CTC) loss function which does not require annotated alignments of audio frames with the score rhythmic information. We trained our model using as input Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven string quartets and Bach chorales synthesized with different tempos and expressive performances. The output is a textual representation of four-voice music scores based on **kern format. Although the proposed approach is evaluated in a simplified scenario, results show that this model can learn to transcribe scores directly from audio signals, opening a promising avenue towards complete AMT.