We consider the task of optimizing an objective function subject to inequality constraints when both the objective and the constraints are expensive to evaluate. Bayesian optimization (BO) is a popular way to tackle optimization problems with expensive objective function evaluations, but has mostly been applied to unconstrained problems. Several BO approaches have been proposed to address expensive constraints but are limited to greedy strategies maximizing immediate reward. To address this limitation, we propose a lookahead approach that selects the next evaluation in order to maximize the long-term feasible reduction of the objective function. We present numerical experiments demonstrating the performance improvements of such a lookahead approach compared to several greedy BO algorithms, including constrained expected improvement (EIC) and predictive entropy search with constraint (PESC).
We propose Pareto-frontier entropy search (PFES) for multi-objective Bayesian optimization (MBO). Unlike the existing entropy search for MBO which considers the entropy of the input space, we define the entropy of Pareto-frontier in the output space. By using a sampled Pareto-frontier from the current model, PFES provides a simple formula for directly evaluating the entropy. Besides the usual MBO setting, in which all the objectives are simultaneously observed, we also consider the "decoupled" setting, in which the objective functions can be observed separately. PFES can easily derive an acquisition function for the decoupled setting through the entropy of the marginal density for each output variable. For the both settings, by conditioning on the sampled Pareto-frontier, dependence among different objectives arises in the entropy evaluation. PFES can incorporate this dependency into the acquisition function, while the existing information-based MBO employs an independent Gaussian approximation. Our numerical experiments show effectiveness of PFES through synthetic functions and real-world datasets from materials science.
Numerical optimization is an important tool in the field of computational physics in general and in nano-optics in specific. It has attracted attention with the increase in complexity of structures that can be realized with nowadays nano-fabrication technologies for which a rational design is no longer feasible. Also, numerical resources are available to enable the computational photonic material design and to identify structures that meet predefined optical properties for specific applications. However, the optimization objective function is in general non-convex and its computation remains resource demanding such that the right choice for the optimization method is crucial to obtain excellent results. Here, we benchmark five global optimization methods for three typical nano-optical optimization problems from the field of shape optimization and parameter reconstruction: downhill simplex optimization, the limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (L-BFGS) algorithm, particle swarm optimization, differential evolution, and Bayesian optimization. In these examples, Bayesian optimization, mainly known from machine learning applications, obtains significantly better results in a fraction of the run times of the other optimization methods.
We consider the problem of multi-objective (MO) blackbox optimization using expensive function evaluations, where the goal is to approximate the true Pareto-set of solutions by minimizing the number of function evaluations. For example, in hardware design optimization, we need to find the designs that trade-off performance, energy, and area overhead using expensive simulations. We propose a novel approach referred to as Max-value Entropy Search for Multi-objective Optimization (MESMO) to solve this problem. MESMO employs an output-space entropy based acquisition function to efficiently select the sequence of inputs for evaluation for quickly uncovering high-quality solutions. We also provide theoretical analysis to characterize the efficacy of MESMO.
Bayesian optimization has been successful at global optimization of expensive-to-evaluate multimodal objective functions. However, unlike most optimization methods, Bayesian optimization typically does not use derivative information. In this paper we show how Bayesian optimization can exploit derivative information to decrease the number of objective function evaluations required for good performance. In particular, we develop a novel Bayesian optimization algorithm, the derivative-enabled knowledge-gradient (dKG), for which we show one-step Bayes-optimality, asymptotic consistency, and greater one-step value of information than is possible in the derivative-free setting. Our procedure accommodates noisy and incomplete derivative information, comes in both sequential and batch forms, and can optionally reduce the computational cost of inference through automatically selected retention of a single directional derivative. We also compute the d-KG acquisition function and its gradient using a novel fast discretization-free technique. We show d-KG provides state-of-the-art performance compared to a wide range of optimization procedures with and without gradients, on benchmarks including logistic regression, deep learning, kernel learning, and k-nearest neighbors.