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Directions for Explainable Knowledge-Enabled Systems

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Interest in the field of Explainable Artificial Intelligence has been growing for decades, and has accelerated recently. As Artificial Intelligence models have become more complex, and often more opaque, with the incorporation of complex machine learning techniques, explainability has become more critical. Recently, researchers have been investigating and tackling explainability with a user-centric focus, looking for explanations to consider trustworthiness, comprehensibility, explicit provenance, and context-awareness. In this chapter, we leverage our survey of explanation literature in Artificial Intelligence and closely related fields and use these past efforts to generate a set of explanation types that we feel reflect the expanded needs of explanation for today's artificial intelligence applications. We define each type and provide an example question that would motivate the need for this style of explanation. We believe this set of explanation types will help future system designers in their generation and prioritization of requirements and further help generate explanations that are better aligned to users' and situational needs.


Explanation Ontology: A Model of Explanations for User-Centered AI

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Explainability has been a goal for Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems since their conception, with the need for explainability growing as more complex AI models are increasingly used in critical, high-stakes settings such as healthcare. Explanations have often added to an AI system in a non-principled, post-hoc manner. With greater adoption of these systems and emphasis on user-centric explainability, there is a need for a structured representation that treats explainability as a primary consideration, mapping end user needs to specific explanation types and the system's AI capabilities. We design an explanation ontology to model both the role of explanations, accounting for the system and user attributes in the process, and the range of different literature-derived explanation types. We indicate how the ontology can support user requirements for explanations in the domain of healthcare. We evaluate our ontology with a set of competency questions geared towards a system designer who might use our ontology to decide which explanation types to include, given a combination of users' needs and a system's capabilities, both in system design settings and in real-time operations. Through the use of this ontology, system designers will be able to make informed choices on which explanations AI systems can and should provide.


Explanation Ontology in Action: A Clinical Use-Case

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We addressed the problem of a lack of semantic representation for user-centric explanations and different explanation types in our Explanation Ontology (https://purl.org/heals/eo). Such a representation is increasingly necessary as explainability has become an important problem in Artificial Intelligence with the emergence of complex methods and an uptake in high-precision and user-facing settings. In this submission, we provide step-by-step guidance for system designers to utilize our ontology, introduced in our resource track paper, to plan and model for explanations during the design of their Artificial Intelligence systems. We also provide a detailed example with our utilization of this guidance in a clinical setting.


Semantic Modeling for Food Recommendation Explanations

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

With the increased use of AI methods to provide recommendations in the health, specifically in the food dietary recommendation space, there is also an increased need for explainability of those recommendations. Such explanations would benefit users of recommendation systems by empowering them with justifications for following the system's suggestions. We present the Food Explanation Ontology (FEO) that provides a formalism for modeling explanations to users for food-related recommendations. FEO models food recommendations, using concepts from the explanation domain to create responses to user questions about food recommendations they receive from AI systems such as personalized knowledge base question answering systems. FEO uses a modular, extensible structure that lends itself to a variety of explanations while still preserving important semantic details to accurately represent explanations of food recommendations. In order to evaluate this system, we used a set of competency questions derived from explanation types present in literature that are relevant to food recommendations. Our motivation with the use of FEO is to empower users to make decisions about their health, fully equipped with an understanding of the AI recommender systems as they relate to user questions, by providing reasoning behind their recommendations in the form of explanations.


Who is this Explanation for? Human Intelligence and Knowledge Graphs for eXplainable AI

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

eXplainable AI focuses on generating explanations for the output of an AI algorithm to a user, usually a decision-maker. Such user needs to interpret the AI system in order to decide whether to trust the machine outcome. When addressing this challenge, therefore, proper attention should be given to produce explanations that are interpretable by the target community of users. In this chapter, we claim for the need to better investigate what constitutes a human explanation, i.e. a justification of the machine behaviour that is interpretable and actionable by the human decision makers. In particular, we focus on the contributions that Human Intelligence can bring to eXplainable AI, especially in conjunction with the exploitation of Knowledge Graphs. Indeed, we call for a better interplay between Knowledge Representation and Reasoning, Social Sciences, Human Computation and Human-Machine Cooperation research -- as already explored in other AI branches -- in order to support the goal of eXplainable AI with the adoption of a Human-in-the-Loop approach.