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Meta-Embeddings for Natural Language Inference and Semantic Similarity tasks

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Word Representations form the core component for almost all advanced Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications such as text mining, question-answering, and text summarization, etc. Over the last two decades, immense research is conducted to come up with one single model to solve all major NLP tasks. The major problem currently is that there are a plethora of choices for different NLP tasks. Thus for NLP practitioners, the task of choosing the right model to be used itself becomes a challenge. Thus combining multiple pre-trained word embeddings and forming meta embeddings has become a viable approach to improve tackle NLP tasks. Meta embedding learning is a process of producing a single word embedding from a given set of pre-trained input word embeddings. In this paper, we propose to use Meta Embedding derived from few State-of-the-Art (SOTA) models to efficiently tackle mainstream NLP tasks like classification, semantic relatedness, and text similarity. We have compared both ensemble and dynamic variants to identify an efficient approach. The results obtained show that even the best State-of-the-Art models can be bettered. Thus showing us that meta-embeddings can be used for several NLP tasks by harnessing the power of several individual representations.


Evaluation of BERT and ALBERT Sentence Embedding Performance on Downstream NLP Tasks

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Contextualized representations from a pre-trained language model are central to achieve a high performance on downstream NLP task. The pre-trained BERT and A Lite BERT (ALBERT) models can be fine-tuned to give state-ofthe-art results in sentence-pair regressions such as semantic textual similarity (STS) and natural language inference (NLI). Although BERT-based models yield the [CLS] token vector as a reasonable sentence embedding, the search for an optimal sentence embedding scheme remains an active research area in computational linguistics. This paper explores on sentence embedding models for BERT and ALBERT. In particular, we take a modified BERT network with siamese and triplet network structures called Sentence-BERT (SBERT) and replace BERT with ALBERT to create Sentence-ALBERT (SALBERT). We also experiment with an outer CNN sentence-embedding network for SBERT and SALBERT. We evaluate performances of all sentence-embedding models considered using the STS and NLI datasets. The empirical results indicate that our CNN architecture improves ALBERT models substantially more than BERT models for STS benchmark. Despite significantly fewer model parameters, ALBERT sentence embedding is highly competitive to BERT in downstream NLP evaluations.


Whitening Sentence Representations for Better Semantics and Faster Retrieval

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Pre-training models such as BERT have achieved great success in many natural language processing tasks. However, how to obtain better sentence representation through these pre-training models is still worthy to exploit. Previous work has shown that the anisotropy problem is an critical bottleneck for BERT-based sentence representation which hinders the model to fully utilize the underlying semantic features. Therefore, some attempts of boosting the isotropy of sentence distribution, such as flow-based model, have been applied to sentence representations and achieved some improvement. In this paper, we find that the whitening operation in traditional machine learning can similarly enhance the isotropy of sentence representations and achieve competitive results. Furthermore, the whitening technique is also capable of reducing the dimensionality of the sentence representation. Our experimental results show that it can not only achieve promising performance but also significantly reduce the storage cost and accelerate the model retrieval speed.


Analyzing Zero-shot Cross-lingual Transfer in Supervised NLP Tasks

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In zero-shot cross-lingual transfer, a supervised NLP task trained on a corpus in one language is directly applicable to another language without any additional training. A source of cross-lingual transfer can be as straightforward as lexical overlap between languages (e.g., use of the same scripts, shared subwords) that naturally forces text embeddings to occupy a similar representation space. Recently introduced cross-lingual language model (XLM) pretraining brings out neural parameter sharing in Transformer-style networks as the most important factor for the transfer. In this paper, we aim to validate the hypothetically strong cross-lingual transfer properties induced by XLM pretraining. Particularly, we take XLM-RoBERTa (XLMR) in our experiments that extend semantic textual similarity (STS), SQuAD and KorQuAD for machine reading comprehension, sentiment analysis, and alignment of sentence embeddings under various cross-lingual settings. Our results indicate that the presence of cross-lingual transfer is most pronounced in STS, sentiment analysis the next, and MRC the last. That is, the complexity of a downstream task softens the degree of crosslingual transfer. All of our results are empirically observed and measured, and we make our code and data publicly available.


A Deep Network Model for Paraphrase Detection in Short Text Messages

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper is concerned with paraphrase detection. The ability to detect similar sentences written in natural language is crucial for several applications, such as text mining, text summarization, plagiarism detection, authorship authentication and question answering. Given two sentences, the objective is to detect whether they are semantically identical. An important insight from this work is that existing paraphrase systems perform well when applied on clean texts, but they do not necessarily deliver good performance against noisy texts. Challenges with paraphrase detection on user generated short texts, such as Twitter, include language irregularity and noise. To cope with these challenges, we propose a novel deep neural network-based approach that relies on coarse-grained sentence modeling using a convolutional neural network and a long short-term memory model, combined with a specific fine-grained word-level similarity matching model. Our experimental results show that the proposed approach outperforms existing state-of-the-art approaches on user-generated noisy social media data, such as Twitter texts, and achieves highly competitive performance on a cleaner corpus.