With the breakthroughs in deep learning, the recent years have witnessed a booming of artificial intelligence (AI) applications and services, spanning from personal assistant to recommendation systems to video/audio surveillance. More recently, with the proliferation of mobile computing and Internet-of-Things (IoT), billions of mobile and IoT devices are connected to the Internet, generating zillions Bytes of data at the network edge. Driving by this trend, there is an urgent need to push the AI frontiers to the network edge so as to fully unleash the potential of the edge big data. To meet this demand, edge computing, an emerging paradigm that pushes computing tasks and services from the network core to the network edge, has been widely recognized as a promising solution. The resulted new inter-discipline, edge AI or edge intelligence, is beginning to receive a tremendous amount of interest. However, research on edge intelligence is still in its infancy stage, and a dedicated venue for exchanging the recent advances of edge intelligence is highly desired by both the computer system and artificial intelligence communities. To this end, we conduct a comprehensive survey of the recent research efforts on edge intelligence. Specifically, we first review the background and motivation for artificial intelligence running at the network edge. We then provide an overview of the overarching architectures, frameworks and emerging key technologies for deep learning model towards training/inference at the network edge. Finally, we discuss future research opportunities on edge intelligence. We believe that this survey will elicit escalating attentions, stimulate fruitful discussions and inspire further research ideas on edge intelligence.
Edge computation offloading allows mobile end devices to put execution of compute-intensive task on the edge servers. End devices can decide whether offload the tasks to edge servers, cloud servers or execute locally according to current network condition and devices' profile in an online manner. In this article, we propose an edge computation offloading framework based on Deep Imitation Learning (DIL) and Knowledge Distillation (KD), which assists end devices to quickly make fine-grained decisions to optimize the delay of computation tasks online. We formalize computation offloading problem into a multi-label classification problem. Training samples for our DIL model are generated in an offline manner. After model is trained, we leverage knowledge distillation to obtain a lightweight DIL model, by which we further reduce the model's inference delay. Numerical experiment shows that the offloading decisions made by our model outperforms those made by other related policies in latency metric. Also, our model has the shortest inference delay among all policies.
Devices comprising the Internet of Things, such as sensors and small cameras, usually have small memories and limited computational power. The proliferation of such resource-constrained devices in recent years has led to the generation of large quantities of data. These data-producing devices are appealing targets for machine learning applications but struggle to run machine learning algorithms due to their limited computing capability. They typically offload input data to external computing systems (such as cloud servers) for further processing. The results of the machine learning computations are communicated back to the resource-scarce devices, but this worsens latency, leads to increased communication costs, and adds to privacy concerns. Therefore, efforts have been made to place additional computing devices at the edge of the network, i.e close to the IoT devices where the data is generated. Deploying machine learning systems on such edge devices alleviates the above issues by allowing computations to be performed close to the data sources. This survey describes major research efforts where machine learning has been deployed at the edge of computer networks.
There is a growing interest in the wireless communications community to complement the traditional model-based design approaches with data-driven machine learning (ML)-based solutions. While conventional ML approaches rely on the assumption of having the data and processing heads in a central entity, this is not always feasible in wireless communications applications because of the inaccessibility of private data and large communication overhead required to transmit raw data to central ML processors. As a result, decentralized ML approaches that keep the data where it is generated are much more appealing. Owing to its privacy-preserving nature, federated learning is particularly relevant for many wireless applications, especially in the context of fifth generation (5G) networks. In this article, we provide an accessible introduction to the general idea of federated learning, discuss several possible applications in 5G networks, and describe key technical challenges and open problems for future research on federated learning in the context of wireless communications.
Next-generation wireless networks must support ultra-reliable, low-latency communication and intelligently manage a massive number of Internet of Things (IoT) devices in real-time, within a highly dynamic environment. This need for stringent communication quality-of-service (QoS) requirements as well as mobile edge and core intelligence can only be realized by integrating fundamental notions of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning across the wireless infrastructure and end-user devices. In this context, this paper provides a comprehensive tutorial that introduces the main concepts of machine learning, in general, and artificial neural networks (ANNs), in particular, and their potential applications in wireless communications. For this purpose, we present a comprehensive overview on a number of key types of neural networks that include feed-forward, recurrent, spiking, and deep neural networks. For each type of neural network, we present the basic architecture and training procedure, as well as the associated challenges and opportunities. Then, we provide an in-depth overview on the variety of wireless communication problems that can be addressed using ANNs, ranging from communication using unmanned aerial vehicles to virtual reality and edge caching.For each individual application, we present the main motivation for using ANNs along with the associated challenges while also providing a detailed example for a use case scenario and outlining future works that can be addressed using ANNs. In a nutshell, this article constitutes one of the first holistic tutorials on the development of machine learning techniques tailored to the needs of future wireless networks.