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State-of-the-art Techniques in Deep Edge Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The potential held by the gargantuan volumes of data being generated across networks worldwide has been truly unlocked by machine learning techniques and more recently Deep Learning. The advantages offered by the latter have seen it rapidly becoming a framework of choice for various applications. However, the centralization of computational resources and the need for data aggregation have long been limiting factors in the democratization of Deep Learning applications. Edge Computing is an emerging paradigm that aims to utilize the hitherto untapped processing resources available at the network periphery. Edge Intelligence (EI) has quickly emerged as a powerful alternative to enable learning using the concepts of Edge Computing. Deep Learning-based Edge Intelligence or Deep Edge Intelligence (DEI) lies in this rapidly evolving domain. In this article, we provide an overview of the major constraints in operationalizing DEI. The major research avenues in DEI have been consolidated under Federated Learning, Distributed Computation, Compression Schemes and Conditional Computation. We also present some of the prevalent challenges and highlight prospective research avenues.


When Deep Reinforcement Learning Meets Federated Learning: Intelligent Multi-Timescale Resource Management for Multi-access Edge Computing in 5G Ultra Dense Network

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Ultra-dense edge computing (UDEC) has great potential, especially in the 5G era, but it still faces challenges in its current solutions, such as the lack of: i) efficient utilization of multiple 5G resources (e.g., computation, communication, storage and service resources); ii) low overhead offloading decision making and resource allocation strategies; and iii) privacy and security protection schemes. Thus, we first propose an intelligent ultra-dense edge computing (I-UDEC) framework, which integrates blockchain and Artificial Intelligence (AI) into 5G ultra-dense edge computing networks. First, we show the architecture of the framework. Then, in order to achieve real-time and low overhead computation offloading decisions and resource allocation strategies, we design a novel two-timescale deep reinforcement learning (\textit{2Ts-DRL}) approach, consisting of a fast-timescale and a slow-timescale learning process, respectively. The primary objective is to minimize the total offloading delay and network resource usage by jointly optimizing computation offloading, resource allocation and service caching placement. We also leverage federated learning (FL) to train the \textit{2Ts-DRL} model in a distributed manner, aiming to protect the edge devices' data privacy. Simulation results corroborate the effectiveness of both the \textit{2Ts-DRL} and FL in the I-UDEC framework and prove that our proposed algorithm can reduce task execution time up to 31.87%.


Edge Intelligence: Paving the Last Mile of Artificial Intelligence with Edge Computing

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

With the breakthroughs in deep learning, the recent years have witnessed a booming of artificial intelligence (AI) applications and services, spanning from personal assistant to recommendation systems to video/audio surveillance. More recently, with the proliferation of mobile computing and Internet-of-Things (IoT), billions of mobile and IoT devices are connected to the Internet, generating zillions Bytes of data at the network edge. Driving by this trend, there is an urgent need to push the AI frontiers to the network edge so as to fully unleash the potential of the edge big data. To meet this demand, edge computing, an emerging paradigm that pushes computing tasks and services from the network core to the network edge, has been widely recognized as a promising solution. The resulted new inter-discipline, edge AI or edge intelligence, is beginning to receive a tremendous amount of interest. However, research on edge intelligence is still in its infancy stage, and a dedicated venue for exchanging the recent advances of edge intelligence is highly desired by both the computer system and artificial intelligence communities. To this end, we conduct a comprehensive survey of the recent research efforts on edge intelligence. Specifically, we first review the background and motivation for artificial intelligence running at the network edge. We then provide an overview of the overarching architectures, frameworks and emerging key technologies for deep learning model towards training/inference at the network edge. Finally, we discuss future research opportunities on edge intelligence. We believe that this survey will elicit escalating attentions, stimulate fruitful discussions and inspire further research ideas on edge intelligence.


Pervasive AI for IoT Applications: Resource-efficient Distributed Artificial Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) has witnessed a substantial breakthrough in a variety of Internet of Things (IoT) applications and services, spanning from recommendation systems to robotics control and military surveillance. This is driven by the easier access to sensory data and the enormous scale of pervasive/ubiquitous devices that generate zettabytes (ZB) of real-time data streams. Designing accurate models using such data streams, to predict future insights and revolutionize the decision-taking process, inaugurates pervasive systems as a worthy paradigm for a better quality-of-life. The confluence of pervasive computing and artificial intelligence, Pervasive AI, expanded the role of ubiquitous IoT systems from mainly data collection to executing distributed computations with a promising alternative to centralized learning, presenting various challenges. In this context, a wise cooperation and resource scheduling should be envisaged among IoT devices (e.g., smartphones, smart vehicles) and infrastructure (e.g. edge nodes, and base stations) to avoid communication and computation overheads and ensure maximum performance. In this paper, we conduct a comprehensive survey of the recent techniques developed to overcome these resource challenges in pervasive AI systems. Specifically, we first present an overview of the pervasive computing, its architecture, and its intersection with artificial intelligence. We then review the background, applications and performance metrics of AI, particularly Deep Learning (DL) and online learning, running in a ubiquitous system. Next, we provide a deep literature review of communication-efficient techniques, from both algorithmic and system perspectives, of distributed inference, training and online learning tasks across the combination of IoT devices, edge devices and cloud servers. Finally, we discuss our future vision and research challenges.


From Federated to Fog Learning: Distributed Machine Learning over Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Machine learning (ML) tasks are becoming ubiquitous in today's network applications. Federated learning has emerged recently as a technique for training ML models at the network edge by leveraging processing capabilities across the nodes that collect the data. There are several challenges with employing conventional federated learning in contemporary networks, due to the significant heterogeneity in compute and communication capabilities that exist across devices. To address this, we advocate a new learning paradigm called fog learning which will intelligently distribute ML model training across the continuum of nodes from edge devices to cloud servers. Fog learning enhances federated learning along three major dimensions: network, heterogeneity, and proximity. It considers a multi-layer hybrid learning framework consisting of heterogeneous devices with various proximities. It accounts for the topology structures of the local networks among the heterogeneous nodes at each network layer, orchestrating them for collaborative/cooperative learning through device-to-device (D2D) communications. This migrates from star network topologies used for parameter transfers in federated learning to more distributed topologies at scale. We discuss several open research directions to realizing fog learning.