Batched Large-scale Bayesian Optimization in High-dimensional Spaces

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Bayesian optimization (BO) has become an effective approach for black-box function optimization problems when function evaluations are expensive and the optimum can be achieved within a relatively small number of queries. However, many cases, such as the ones with high-dimensional inputs, may require a much larger number of observations for optimization. Despite an abundance of observations thanks to parallel experiments, current BO techniques have been limited to merely a few thousand observations. In this paper, we propose ensemble Bayesian optimization (EBO) to address three current challenges in BO simultaneously: (1) large-scale observations; (2) high dimensional input spaces; and (3) selections of batch queries that balance quality and diversity. The key idea of EBO is to operate on an ensemble of additive Gaussian process models, each of which possesses a randomized strategy to divide and conquer. We show unprecedented, previously impossible results of scaling up BO to tens of thousands of observations within minutes of computation.


High-Dimensional Bayesian Optimization via Additive Models with Overlapping Groups

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Bayesian optimization (BO) is a popular technique for sequential black-box function optimization, with applications including parameter tuning, robotics, environmental monitoring, and more. One of the most important challenges in BO is the development of algorithms that scale to high dimensions, which remains a key open problem despite recent progress. In this paper, we consider the approach of Kandasamy et al. (2015), in which the high-dimensional function decomposes as a sum of lower-dimensional functions on subsets of the underlying variables. In particular, we significantly generalize this approach by lifting the assumption that the subsets are disjoint, and consider additive models with arbitrary overlap among the subsets. By representing the dependencies via a graph, we deduce an efficient message passing algorithm for optimizing the acquisition function. In addition, we provide an algorithm for learning the graph from samples based on Gibbs sampling. We empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of our methods on both synthetic and real-world data.


Batched Gaussian Process Bandit Optimization via Determinantal Point Processes

Neural Information Processing Systems

Gaussian Process bandit optimization has emerged as a powerful tool for optimizing noisy black box functions. One example in machine learning is hyper-parameter optimization where each evaluation of the target function may require training a model which may involve days or even weeks of computation. Most methods for this so-called “Bayesian optimization” only allow sequential exploration of the parameter space. However, it is often desirable to propose batches or sets of parameter values to explore simultaneously, especially when there are large parallel processing facilities at our disposal. Batch methods require modeling the interaction between the different evaluations in the batch, which can be expensive in complex scenarios. In this paper, we propose a new approach for parallelizing Bayesian optimization by modeling the diversity of a batch via Determinantal point processes (DPPs) whose kernels are learned automatically. This allows us to generalize a previous result as well as prove better regret bounds based on DPP sampling. Our experiments on a variety of synthetic and real-world robotics and hyper-parameter optimization tasks indicate that our DPP-based methods, especially those based on DPP sampling, outperform state-of-the-art methods.


Efficient High Dimensional Bayesian Optimization with Additivity and Quadrature Fourier Features

Neural Information Processing Systems

We develop an efficient and provably no-regret Bayesian optimization (BO) algorithm for optimization of black-box functions in high dimensions. We assume a generalized additive model with possibly overlapping variable groups. When the groups do not overlap, we are able to provide the first provably no-regret \emph{polynomial time} (in the number of evaluations of the acquisition function) algorithm for solving high dimensional BO. To make the optimization efficient and feasible, we introduce a novel deterministic Fourier Features approximation based on numerical integration with detailed analysis for the squared exponential kernel. The error of this approximation decreases \emph{exponentially} with the number of features, and allows for a precise approximation of both posterior mean and variance. In addition, the kernel matrix inversion improves in its complexity from cubic to essentially linear in the number of data points measured in basic arithmetic operations.


Efficient High Dimensional Bayesian Optimization with Additivity and Quadrature Fourier Features

Neural Information Processing Systems

We develop an efficient and provably no-regret Bayesian optimization (BO) algorithm for optimization of black-box functions in high dimensions. We assume a generalized additive model with possibly overlapping variable groups. When the groups do not overlap, we are able to provide the first provably no-regret \emph{polynomial time} (in the number of evaluations of the acquisition function) algorithm for solving high dimensional BO. To make the optimization efficient and feasible, we introduce a novel deterministic Fourier Features approximation based on numerical integration with detailed analysis for the squared exponential kernel. The error of this approximation decreases \emph{exponentially} with the number of features, and allows for a precise approximation of both posterior mean and variance. In addition, the kernel matrix inversion improves in its complexity from cubic to essentially linear in the number of data points measured in basic arithmetic operations.