Farahat, Ahmed K., Ghodsi, Ali, Kamel, Mohamed S.

This paper defines a generalized column subset selection problem which is concerned with the selection of a few columns from a source matrix A that best approximate the span of a target matrix B. The paper then proposes a fast greedy algorithm for solving this problem and draws connections to different problems that can be efficiently solved using the proposed algorithm.

We consider the problem of matrix column subset selection, which selects a subset of columns from an input matrix such that the input can be well approximated by the span of the selected columns. Column subset selection has been applied to numerous real-world data applications such as population genetics summarization, electronic circuits testing and recommendation systems. In many applications the complete data matrix is unavailable and one needs to select representative columns by inspecting only a small portion of the input matrix. In this paper we propose the first provably correct column subset selection algorithms for partially observed data matrices. Our proposed algorithms exhibit different merits and limitations in terms of statistical accuracy, computational efficiency, sample complexity and sampling schemes, which provides a nice exploration of the tradeoff between these desired properties for column subset selection. The proposed methods employ the idea of feedback driven sampling and are inspired by several sampling schemes previously introduced for low-rank matrix approximation tasks (Drineas et al., 2008; Frieze et al., 2004; Deshpande and Vempala, 2006; Krishnamurthy and Singh, 2014). Our analysis shows that, under the assumption that the input data matrix has incoherent rows but possibly coherent columns, all algorithms provably converge to the best low-rank approximation of the original data as number of selected columns increases. Furthermore, two of the proposed algorithms enjoy a relative error bound, which is preferred for column subset selection and matrix approximation purposes. We also demonstrate through both theoretical and empirical analysis the power of feedback driven sampling compared to uniform random sampling on input matrices with highly correlated columns.

Zhang, Lefei (Wuhan University) | Zhang, Qian (Alibaba Group) | Du, Bo (Wuhan University) | Tao, Dacheng (University of Technology Sydney) | You, Jane (The Hong Kong Polytechnic University)

Low-rank matrix approximation has been widely used for data subspace clustering and feature representation in many computer vision and pattern recognition applications. However, in order to enhance the discriminability, most of the matrix approximation based feature extraction algorithms usually generate the cluster labels by certain clustering algorithm (e.g., the kmeans) and then perform the matrix approximation guided by such label information. In addition, the noises and outliers in the dataset with large reconstruction errors will easily dominate the objective function by the conventional ℓ 2 -norm based squared residue minimization. In this paper, we propose a novel clustering and feature extraction algorithm based on an unified low-rank matrix factorization framework, which suggests that the observed data matrix can be approximated by the production of projection matrix and low dimensional representation, among which the low-dimensional representation can be approximated by the cluster indicator and latent feature matrix simultaneously. Furthermore, we have proposed using the ℓ 2,1 -norm and integrating the manifold regularization to further promote the proposed model. A novel Augmented Lagrangian Method (ALM) based procedure is designed to effectively and efficiently seek the optimal solution of the problem. The experimental results in both clustering and feature extraction perspectives demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method.

Shabat, Gil, Shmueli, Yaniv, Averbuch, Amir

We describe several algorithms for matrix completion and matrix approximation when only some of its entries are known. The approximation constraint can be any whose approximated solution is known for the full matrix. For low rank approximations, similar algorithms appears recently in the literature under different names. In this work, we introduce new theorems for matrix approximation and show that these algorithms can be extended to handle different constraints such as nuclear norm, spectral norm, orthogonality constraints and more that are different than low rank approximations. As the algorithms can be viewed from an optimization point of view, we discuss their convergence to global solution for the convex case. We also discuss the optimal step size and show that it is fixed in each iteration. In addition, the derived matrix completion flow is robust and does not require any parameters. This matrix completion flow is applicable to different spectral minimizations and can be applied to physics, mathematics and electrical engineering problems such as data reconstruction of images and data coming from PDEs such as Helmholtz equation used for electromagnetic waves.

Bringmann, Karl, Kolev, Pavel, Woodruff, David

We study the $\ell_0$-Low Rank Approximation Problem, where the goal is, given an $m \times n$ matrix $A$, to output a rank-$k$ matrix $A'$ for which $\|A'-A\|_0$ is minimized. Here, for a matrix $B$, $\|B\|_0$ denotes the number of its non-zero entries. This NP-hard variant of low rank approximation is natural for problems with no underlying metric, and its goal is to minimize the number of disagreeing data positions. We provide approximation algorithms which significantly improve the running time and approximation factor of previous work. For $k > 1$, we show how to find, in poly$(mn)$ time for every $k$, a rank $O(k \log(n/k))$ matrix $A'$ for which $\|A'-A\|_0 \leq O(k^2 \log(n/k)) \OPT$. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first algorithm with provable guarantees for the $\ell_0$-Low Rank Approximation Problem for $k > 1$, even for bicriteria algorithms. For the well-studied case when $k = 1$, we give a $(2+\epsilon)$-approximation in {\it sublinear time}, which is impossible for other variants of low rank approximation such as for the Frobenius norm. We strengthen this for the well-studied case of binary matrices to obtain a $(1+O(\psi))$-approximation in sublinear time, where $\psi = \OPT/\nnz{A}$. For small $\psi$, our approximation factor is $1+o(1)$.