Correlation Coefficients and Semantic Textual Similarity

arXiv.org Machine Learning

A large body of research into semantic textual similarity has focused on constructing state-of-the-art embeddings using sophisticated modelling, careful choice of learning signals and many clever tricks. By contrast, little attention has been devoted to similarity measures between these embeddings, with cosine similarity being used unquestionably in the majority of cases. In this work, we illustrate that for all common word vectors, cosine similarity is essentially equivalent to the Pearson correlation coefficient, which provides some justification for its use. We thoroughly characterise cases where Pearson correlation (and thus cosine similarity) is unfit as similarity measure. Importantly, we show that Pearson correlation is appropriate for some word vectors but not others. When it is not appropriate, we illustrate how common non-parametric rank correlation coefficients can be used instead to significantly improve performance. We support our analysis with a series of evaluations on word-level and sentence-level semantic textual similarity benchmarks. On the latter, we show that even the simplest averaged word vectors compared by rank correlation easily rival the strongest deep representations compared by cosine similarity.


Wasserstein is all you need

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We propose a unified framework for building unsupervised representations of individual objects or entities (and their compositions), by associating with each object both a distributional as well as a point estimate (vector embedding). This is made possible by the use of optimal transport, which allows us to build these associated estimates while harnessing the underlying geometry of the ground space. Our method gives a novel perspective for building rich and powerful feature representations that simultaneously capture uncertainty (via a distributional estimate) and interpretability (with the optimal transport map). As a guiding example, we formulate unsupervised representations for text, in particular for sentence representation and entailment detection. Empirical results show strong advantages gained through the proposed framework. This approach can be used for any unsupervised or supervised problem (on text or other modalities) with a co-occurrence structure, such as any sequence data. The key tools underlying the framework are Wasserstein distances and Wasserstein barycenters (and, hence the title!).


Multilingual Factor Analysis

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In this work we approach the task of learning multilingual word representations in an offline manner by fitting a generative latent variable model to a multilingual dictionary. We model equivalent words in different languages as different views of the same word generated by a common latent variable representing their latent lexical meaning. We explore the task of alignment by querying the fitted model for multilingual embeddings achieving competitive results across a variety of tasks. The proposed model is robust to noise in the embedding space making it a suitable method for distributed representations learned from noisy corpora.


Decoding Decoders: Finding Optimal Representation Spaces for Unsupervised Similarity Tasks

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Experimental evidence indicates that simple models outperform complex deep networks on many unsupervised similarity tasks. We provide a simple yet rigorous explanation for this behaviour by introducing the concept of an optimal representation space, in which semantically close symbols are mapped to representations that are close under a similarity measure induced by the model's objective function. In addition, we present a straightforward procedure that, without any retraining or architectural modifications, allows deep recurrent models to perform equally well (and sometimes better) when compared to shallow models. To validate our analysis, we conduct a set of consistent empirical evaluations and introduce several new sentence embedding models in the process. Even though this work is presented within the context of natural language processing, the insights are readily applicable to other domains that rely on distributed representations for transfer tasks.


Unsupervised Learning of Sentence Embeddings using Compositional n-Gram Features

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The recent tremendous success of unsupervised word embeddings in a multitude of applications raises the obvious question if similar methods could be derived to improve embeddings (i.e. semantic representations) of word sequences as well. We present a simple but efficient unsupervised objective to train distributed representations of sentences. Our method outperforms the state-of-the-art unsupervised models on most benchmark tasks, highlighting the robustness of the produced general-purpose sentence embeddings.