Many machine learning problems can be formulated as predicting labels for a pair of objects. Problems of that kind are often referred to as pairwise learning, dyadic prediction or network inference problems. During the last decade kernel methods have played a dominant role in pairwise learning. They still obtain a state-of-the-art predictive performance, but a theoretical analysis of their behavior has been underexplored in the machine learning literature. In this work we review and unify existing kernel-based algorithms that are commonly used in different pairwise learning settings, ranging from matrix filtering to zero-shot learning. To this end, we focus on closed-form efficient instantiations of Kronecker kernel ridge regression. We show that independent task kernel ridge regression, two-step kernel ridge regression and a linear matrix filter arise naturally as a special case of Kronecker kernel ridge regression, implying that all these methods implicitly minimize a squared loss. In addition, we analyze universality, consistency and spectral filtering properties. Our theoretical results provide valuable insights in assessing the advantages and limitations of existing pairwise learning methods.
One way to address this problem is the so called problem transformation method. This method is often used in multi-label learning, but can also be used for multi-output prediction due to its generality and simplicity. In this paper, we introduce an algorithm that uses the problem transformation method for multi-output prediction, while simultaneously learning the dependencies between target variables in a sparse and interpretable manner. In a first step, predictions are obtained for each target individually. Target dependencies are then learned via a component-wise boosting approach. We compare our new method with similar approaches in a benchmark using multi-label, multivariate regression and mixed-type datasets.
Multi-output learning aims to simultaneously predict multiple outputs given an input. It is an important learning problem due to the pressing need for sophisticated decision making in real-world applications. Inspired by big data, the 4Vs characteristics of multi-output imposes a set of challenges to multi-output learning, in terms of the volume, velocity, variety and veracity of the outputs. Increasing number of works in the literature have been devoted to the study of multi-output learning and the development of novel approaches for addressing the challenges encountered. However, it lacks a comprehensive overview on different types of challenges of multi-output learning brought by the characteristics of the multiple outputs and the techniques proposed to overcome the challenges. This paper thus attempts to fill in this gap to provide a comprehensive review on this area. We first introduce different stages of the life cycle of the output labels. Then we present the paradigm on multi-output learning, including its myriads of output structures, definitions of its different sub-problems, model evaluation metrics and popular data repositories used in the study. Subsequently, we review a number of state-of-the-art multi-output learning methods, which are categorized based on the challenges.
Several multi-target regression methods were devel-oped in the last years aiming at improving predictive performanceby exploring inter-target correlation within the problem. However, none of these methods outperforms the others for all problems. This motivates the development of automatic approachesto recommend the most suitable multi-target regression method. In this paper, we propose a meta-learning system to recommend the best predictive method for a given multi-target regression problem. We performed experiments with a meta-dataset generated by a total of 648 synthetic datasets. These datasets were created to explore distinct inter-targets characteristics toward recommending the most promising method. In experiments, we evaluated four different algorithms with different biases as meta-learners. Our meta-dataset is composed of 58 meta-features, based on: statistical information, correlation characteristics, linear landmarking, from the distribution and smoothness of the data, and has four different meta-labels. Results showed that induced meta-models were able to recommend the best methodfor different base level datasets with a balanced accuracy superior to 70% using a Random Forest meta-model, which statistically outperformed the meta-learning baselines.
In this blog post, we welcome ex-NGDATA collaborator and now university professor Willem Waegeman who reports on a scientific research project he worked on part-time while working with us. NGDATA takes pride in supporting research to advance the field of machine learning. If you want to learn more about our offerings in this area, take a look at our Lab and do not hesitate to contact us. While 2012 has been the year of Big Data technologies, 2013 is becoming the year of Big Data analytics. Gathering and maintaining large collections of data is one thing, but extracting useful information from these collections is even more challenging.