Zhang, Changqing (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill) | Adeli, Ehsan (Stanford University) | Zhou, Tao (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill) | Chen, Xiaobo (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill) | Shen, Dinggang (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)
In this paper, we propose a novel multi-view learning method for Alzheimer's Disease (AD) diagnosis, using neuroimaging and genetics data. Generally, there are several major challenges associated with traditional classification methods on multi-source imaging and genetics data. First, the correlation between the extracted imaging features and class labels is generally complex, which often makes the traditional linear models ineffective. Second, medical data may be collected from different sources (i.e., multiple modalities of neuroimaging data, clinical scores or genetics measurements), therefore, how to effectively exploit the complementarity among multiple views is of great importance. In this paper, we propose a Multi-Layer Multi-View Classification (ML-MVC) approach, which regards the multi-view input as the first layer, and constructs a latent representation to explore the complex correlation between the features and class labels. This captures the high-order complementarity among different views, as we exploit the underlying information with a low-rank tensor regularization. Intrinsically, our formulation elegantly explores the nonlinear correlation together with complementarity among different views, and thus improves the accuracy of classification. Finally, the minimization problem is solved by the Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM). Experimental results on Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) data sets validate the effectiveness of our proposed method.
Recent studies in the literature have paid much attention to the sparsity in linear classification tasks. One motivation of imposing sparsity assumption on the linear discriminant direction is to rule out the noninformative features, making hardly contribution to the classification problem. Most of those work were focused on the scenarios of binary classification. In the presence of multi-class data, preceding researches recommended individually pairwise sparse linear discriminant analysis(LDA). However, further sparsity should be explored. In this paper, an estimator of grouped LASSO type is proposed to take advantage of sparsity for multi-class data. It enjoys appealing non-asymptotic properties which allows insignificant correlations among features. This estimator exhibits superior capability on both simulated and real data.
The key to success in machine learning (ML) is the use of effective data representations. Traditionally, data representations were hand-crafted. Recently it has been demonstrated that, given sufficient data, deep neural networks can learn effective implicit representations from simple input representations. However, for most scientific problems, the use of deep learning is not appropriate as the amount of available data is limited, and/or the output models must be explainable. Nevertheless, many scientific problems do have significant amounts of data available on related tasks, which makes them amenable to multi-task learning, i.e. learning many related problems simultaneously. Here we propose a novel and general representation learning approach for multi-task learning that works successfully with small amounts of data. The fundamental new idea is to transform an input intrinsic data representation (i.e., handcrafted features), to an extrinsic representation based on what a pre-trained set of models predict about the examples. This transformation has the dual advantages of producing significantly more accurate predictions, and providing explainable models. To demonstrate the utility of this transformative learning approach, we have applied it to three real-world scientific problems: drug-design (quantitative structure activity relationship learning), predicting human gene expression (across different tissue types and drug treatments), and meta-learning for machine learning (predicting which machine learning methods work best for a given problem). In all three problems, transformative machine learning significantly outperforms the best intrinsic representation.
We present a novel extension of multi-output Gaussian processes for handling heterogeneous outputs. We assume that each output has its own likelihood function and use a vector-valued Gaussian process prior to jointly model the parameters in all likelihoods as latent functions. Our multi-output Gaussian process uses a covariance function with a linear model of coregionalisation form. Assuming conditional independence across the underlying latent functions together with an inducing variable framework, we are able to obtain tractable variational bounds amenable to stochastic variational inference. We illustrate the performance of the model on synthetic data and two real datasets: a human behavioral study and a demographic high-dimensional dataset.
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive impairment of memory and other cognitive functions. Regression analysis has been studied to relate neuroimaging measures to cognitive status. However, whether these measures have further predictive power to infer a trajectory of cognitive performance over time is still an under-explored but important topic in AD research. We propose a novel high-order multi-task learning model to address this issue. The proposed model explores the temporal correlations existing in data features and regression tasks by the structured sparsity-inducing norms. In addition, the sparsity of the model enables the selection of a small number of MRI measures while maintaining high prediction accuracy. The empirical studies, using the baseline MRI and serial cognitive data of the ADNI cohort, have yielded promising results.