The remarkable advancements in Deep Learning (DL) algorithms have fueled enthusiasm for using Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies in almost every domain; however, the opaqueness of these algorithms put a question mark on their applications in safety-critical systems. In this regard, the `explainability' dimension is not only essential to both explain the inner workings of black-box algorithms, but it also adds accountability and transparency dimensions that are of prime importance for regulators, consumers, and service providers. eXplainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) is the set of techniques and methods to convert the so-called black-box AI algorithms to white-box algorithms, where the results achieved by these algorithms and the variables, parameters, and steps taken by the algorithm to reach the obtained results, are transparent and explainable. To complement the existing literature on XAI, in this paper, we take an `engineering' approach to illustrate the concepts of XAI. We discuss the stakeholders in XAI and describe the mathematical contours of XAI from engineering perspective. Then we take the autonomous car as a use-case and discuss the applications of XAI for its different components such as object detection, perception, control, action decision, and so on. This work is an exploratory study to identify new avenues of research in the field of XAI.
The past decade has seen significant progress in artificial intelligence (AI), which has resulted in algorithms being adopted for resolving a variety of problems. However, this success has been met by increasing model complexity and employing black-box AI models that lack transparency. In response to this need, Explainable AI (XAI) has been proposed to make AI more transparent and thus advance the adoption of AI in critical domains. Although there are several reviews of XAI topics in the literature that identified challenges and potential research directions in XAI, these challenges and research directions are scattered. This study, hence, presents a systematic meta-survey for challenges and future research directions in XAI organized in two themes: (1) general challenges and research directions in XAI and (2) challenges and research directions in XAI based on machine learning life cycle's phases: design, development, and deployment. We believe that our meta-survey contributes to XAI literature by providing a guide for future exploration in the XAI area.
As we make tremendous advances in machine learning and artificial intelligence technosciences, there is a renewed understanding in the AI community that we must ensure that humans being are at the center of our deliberations so that we don't end in technology-induced dystopias. As strongly argued by Green in his book Smart Enough City, the incorporation of technology in city environs does not automatically translate into prosperity, wellbeing, urban livability, or social justice. There is a great need to deliberate on the future of the cities worth living and designing. There are philosophical and ethical questions involved along with various challenges that relate to the security, safety, and interpretability of AI algorithms that will form the technological bedrock of future cities. Several research institutes on human centered AI have been established at top international universities. Globally there are calls for technology to be made more humane and human-compatible. For example, Stuart Russell has a book called Human Compatible AI. The Center for Humane Technology advocates for regulators and technology companies to avoid business models and product features that contribute to social problems such as extremism, polarization, misinformation, and Internet addiction. In this paper, we analyze and explore key challenges including security, robustness, interpretability, and ethical challenges to a successful deployment of AI or ML in human-centric applications, with a particular emphasis on the convergence of these challenges. We provide a detailed review of existing literature on these key challenges and analyze how one of these challenges may lead to others or help in solving other challenges. The paper also advises on the current limitations, pitfalls, and future directions of research in these domains, and how it can fill the current gaps and lead to better solutions.
Arrieta, Alejandro Barredo, Díaz-Rodríguez, Natalia, Del Ser, Javier, Bennetot, Adrien, Tabik, Siham, Barbado, Alberto, García, Salvador, Gil-López, Sergio, Molina, Daniel, Benjamins, Richard, Chatila, Raja, Herrera, Francisco
In the last years, Artificial Intelligence (AI) has achieved a notable momentum that may deliver the best of expectations over many application sectors across the field. For this to occur, the entire community stands in front of the barrier of explainability, an inherent problem of AI techniques brought by sub-symbolism (e.g. ensembles or Deep Neural Networks) that were not present in the last hype of AI. Paradigms underlying this problem fall within the so-called eXplainable AI (XAI) field, which is acknowledged as a crucial feature for the practical deployment of AI models. This overview examines the existing literature in the field of XAI, including a prospect toward what is yet to be reached. We summarize previous efforts to define explainability in Machine Learning, establishing a novel definition that covers prior conceptual propositions with a major focus on the audience for which explainability is sought. We then propose and discuss about a taxonomy of recent contributions related to the explainability of different Machine Learning models, including those aimed at Deep Learning methods for which a second taxonomy is built. This literature analysis serves as the background for a series of challenges faced by XAI, such as the crossroads between data fusion and explainability. Our prospects lead toward the concept of Responsible Artificial Intelligence, namely, a methodology for the large-scale implementation of AI methods in real organizations with fairness, model explainability and accountability at its core. Our ultimate goal is to provide newcomers to XAI with a reference material in order to stimulate future research advances, but also to encourage experts and professionals from other disciplines to embrace the benefits of AI in their activity sectors, without any prior bias for its lack of interpretability.
The rapid increase in the percentage of chronic disease patients along with the recent pandemic pose immediate threats on healthcare expenditure and elevate causes of death. This calls for transforming healthcare systems away from one-on-one patient treatment into intelligent health systems, to improve services, access and scalability, while reducing costs. Reinforcement Learning (RL) has witnessed an intrinsic breakthrough in solving a variety of complex problems for diverse applications and services. Thus, we conduct in this paper a comprehensive survey of the recent models and techniques of RL that have been developed/used for supporting Intelligent-healthcare (I-health) systems. This paper can guide the readers to deeply understand the state-of-the-art regarding the use of RL in the context of I-health. Specifically, we first present an overview for the I-health systems challenges, architecture, and how RL can benefit these systems. We then review the background and mathematical modeling of different RL, Deep RL (DRL), and multi-agent RL models. After that, we provide a deep literature review for the applications of RL in I-health systems. In particular, three main areas have been tackled, i.e., edge intelligence, smart core network, and dynamic treatment regimes. Finally, we highlight emerging challenges and outline future research directions in driving the future success of RL in I-health systems, which opens the door for exploring some interesting and unsolved problems.