Entity alignment which aims at linking entities with the same meaning from different knowledge graphs (KGs) is a vital step for knowledge fusion. Existing research focused on learning embeddings of entities by utilizing structural information of KGs for entity alignment. These methods can aggregate information from neighboring nodes but may also bring noise from neighbors. Most recently, several researchers attempted to compare neighboring nodes in pairs to enhance the entity alignment. However, they ignored the relations between entities which are also important for neighborhood matching. In addition, existing methods paid less attention to the positive interactions between the entity alignment and the relation alignment. To deal with these issues, we propose a novel Relation-aware Neighborhood Matching model named RNM for entity alignment. Specifically, we propose to utilize the neighborhood matching to enhance the entity alignment. Besides comparing neighbor nodes when matching neighborhood, we also try to explore useful information from the connected relations. Moreover, an iterative framework is designed to leverage the positive interactions between the entity alignment and the relation alignment in a semi-supervised manner. Experimental results on three real-world datasets demonstrate that the proposed model RNM performs better than state-of-the-art methods.
Entity alignment (EA) aims to discover the equivalent entities in different knowledge graphs (KGs). It is a pivotal step for integrating KGs to increase knowledge coverage and quality. Recent years have witnessed a rapid increase of EA frameworks. However, state-of-the-art solutions tend to rely on labeled data for model training. Additionally, they work under the closed-domain setting and cannot deal with entities that are unmatchable. To address these deficiencies, we offer an unsupervised framework that performs entity alignment in the open world. Specifically, we first mine useful features from the side information of KGs. Then, we devise an unmatchable entity prediction module to filter out unmatchable entities and produce preliminary alignment results. These preliminary results are regarded as the pseudo-labeled data and forwarded to the progressive learning framework to generate structural representations, which are integrated with the side information to provide a more comprehensive view for alignment. Finally, the progressive learning framework gradually improves the quality of structural embeddings and enhances the alignment performance by enriching the pseudo-labeled data with alignment results from the previous round. Our solution does not require labeled data and can effectively filter out unmatchable entities. Comprehensive experimental evaluations validate its superiority.
We study the problem of embedding-based entity alignment between knowledge graphs (KGs). Previous works mainly focus on the relational structure of entities. Some further incorporate another type of features, such as attributes, for refinement. However, a vast of entity features are still unexplored or not equally treated together, which impairs the accuracy and robustness of embedding-based entity alignment. In this paper, we propose a novel framework that unifies multiple views of entities to learn embeddings for entity alignment. Specifically, we embed entities based on the views of entity names, relations and attributes, with several combination strategies. Furthermore, we design some cross-KG inference methods to enhance the alignment between two KGs. Our experiments on real-world datasets show that the proposed framework significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art embedding-based entity alignment methods. The selected views, cross-KG inference and combination strategies all contribute to the performance improvement.
Entity alignment (EA) is the task to discover entities referring to the same real-world object from different knowledge graphs (KGs), which is the most crucial step in integrating multi-source KGs. The majority of the existing embeddings-based entity alignment methods embed entities and relations into a vector space based on relation triples of KGs for local alignment. As these methods insufficiently consider the multiple relations between entities, the structure information of KGs has not been fully leveraged. In this paper, we propose a novel framework based on Relation-aware Graph Attention Networks to capture the interactions between entities and relations. Our framework adopts the self-attention mechanism to spread entity information to the relations and then aggregate relation information back to entities. Furthermore, we propose a global alignment algorithm to make one-to-one entity alignments with a fine-grained similarity matrix. Experiments on three real-world cross-lingual datasets show that our framework outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.
Entity alignment seeks to find entities in different knowledge graphs (KGs) that refer to the same real-world object. Recent advancement in KG embedding impels the advent of embedding-based entity alignment, which encodes entities in a continuous embedding space and measures entity similarities based on the learned embeddings. In this paper, we conduct a comprehensive experimental study of this emerging field. This study surveys 23 recent embedding-based entity alignment approaches and categorizes them based on their techniques and characteristics. We further observe that current approaches use different datasets in evaluation, and the degree distributions of entities in these datasets are inconsistent with real KGs. Hence, we propose a new KG sampling algorithm, with which we generate a set of dedicated benchmark datasets with various heterogeneity and distributions for a realistic evaluation. This study also produces an open-source library, which includes 12 representative embedding-based entity alignment approaches. We extensively evaluate these approaches on the generated datasets, to understand their strengths and limitations. Additionally, for several directions that have not been explored in current approaches, we perform exploratory experiments and report our preliminary findings for future studies. The benchmark datasets, open-source library and experimental results are all accessible online and will be duly maintained.