A Modality-Adaptive Method for Segmenting Brain Tumors and Organs-at-Risk in Radiation Therapy Planning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In this paper we present a method for simultaneously segmenting brain tumors and an extensive set of organs-at-risk for radiation therapy planning of glioblastomas. The method combines a contrast-adaptive generative model for whole-brain segmentation with a new spatial regularization model of tumor shape using convolutional restricted Boltzmann machines. We demonstrate experimentally that the method is able to adapt to image acquisitions that differ substantially from any available training data, ensuring its applicability across treatment sites; that its tumor segmentation accuracy is comparable to that of the current state of the art; and that it captures most organs-at-risk sufficiently well for radiation therapy planning purposes. The proposed method may be a valuable step towards automating the delineation of brain tumors and organs-at-risk in glioblastoma patients undergoing radiation therapy.


A Novel Domain Adaptation Framework for Medical Image Segmentation

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We propose a segmentation framework that uses deep neural networks and introduce two innovations. First, we describe a biophysics-based domain adaptation method. Second, we propose an automatic method to segment white and gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid, in addition to tumorous tissue. Regarding our first innovation, we use a domain adaptation framework that combines a novel multispecies biophysical tumor growth model with a generative adversarial model to create realistic looking synthetic multimodal MR images with known segmentation. Regarding our second innovation, we propose an automatic approach to enrich available segmentation data by computing the segmentation for healthy tissues. This segmentation, which is done using diffeomorphic image registration between the BraTS training data and a set of prelabeled atlases, provides more information for training and reduces the class imbalance problem. Our overall approach is not specific to any particular neural network and can be used in conjunction with existing solutions. We demonstrate the performance improvement using a 2D U-Net for the BraTS'18 segmentation challenge. Our biophysics based domain adaptation achieves better results, as compared to the existing state-of-the-art GAN model used to create synthetic data for training.


Brain Tumor Segmentation with Deep Neural Networks

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this paper, we present a fully automatic brain tumor segmentation method based on Deep Neural Networks (DNNs). The proposed networks are tailored to glioblastomas (both low and high grade) pictured in MR images. By their very nature, these tumors can appear anywhere in the brain and have almost any kind of shape, size, and contrast. These reasons motivate our exploration of a machine learning solution that exploits a flexible, high capacity DNN while being extremely efficient. Here, we give a description of different model choices that we've found to be necessary for obtaining competitive performance. We explore in particular different architectures based on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), i.e. DNNs specifically adapted to image data. We present a novel CNN architecture which differs from those traditionally used in computer vision. Our CNN exploits both local features as well as more global contextual features simultaneously. Also, different from most traditional uses of CNNs, our networks use a final layer that is a convolutional implementation of a fully connected layer which allows a 40 fold speed up. We also describe a 2-phase training procedure that allows us to tackle difficulties related to the imbalance of tumor labels. Finally, we explore a cascade architecture in which the output of a basic CNN is treated as an additional source of information for a subsequent CNN. Results reported on the 2013 BRATS test dataset reveal that our architecture improves over the currently published state-of-the-art while being over 30 times faster.


Enhanced Reality For Neurosurgical Guidance

AAAI Conferences

Black, M.D., Ph.D., E. Alexander, III, M.D., F. Jolesz, M.D. Localization of tumors in brain surgery is one of the most challenging aspects of the field. In difficult cases involving small or deep tumors localization has traditionally been achieved using a stereolactic frame rigidly fixed to the patient's skull. We have developed an enhanced reality technique that simplifies tumor localization in brain surgery s. The technique involves merging three dimensional (3D) computereconstructed preoperative medical scans with live peri-operative video images of patients. This image fusion combines the information from the preoperative study with the operative field in a medium readily accessible to surgeons.


Deep Learning with Mixed Supervision for Brain Tumor Segmentation

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Most of the current state-of-the-art methods for tumor segmentation are based on machine learning models trained on manually segmented images. This type of training data is particularly costly, as manual delineation of tumors is not only time-consuming but also requires medical expertise. On the other hand, images with a provided global label (indicating presence or absence of a tumor) are less informative but can be obtained at a substantially lower cost. In this paper, we propose to use both types of training data (fully-annotated and weakly-annotated) to train a deep learning model for segmentation. The idea of our approach is to extend segmentation networks with an additional branch performing image-level classification. The model is jointly trained for segmentation and classification tasks in order to exploit information contained in weakly-annotated images while preventing the network to learn features which are irrelevant for the segmentation task. We evaluate our method on the challenging task of brain tumor segmentation in Magnetic Resonance images from BRATS 2018 challenge. We show that the proposed approach provides a significant improvement of segmentation performance compared to the standard supervised learning. The observed improvement is proportional to the ratio between weakly-annotated and fully-annotated images available for training.