Domain adaptation is an important technique to alleviate performance degradation caused by domain shift, e.g., when training and test data come from different domains. Most existing deep adaptation methods focus on reducing domain shift by matching marginal feature distributions through deep transformations on the input features, due to the unavailability of target domain labels. We show that domain shift may still exist via label distribution shift at the classifier, thus deteriorating model performances. To alleviate this issue, we propose an approximate joint distribution matching scheme by exploiting prediction uncertainty. Specifically, we use a Bayesian neural network to quantify prediction uncertainty of a classifier. By imposing distribution matching on both features and labels (via uncertainty), label distribution mismatching in source and target data is effectively alleviated, encouraging the classifier to produce consistent predictions across domains. We also propose a few techniques to improve our method by adaptively reweighting domain adaptation loss to achieve nontrivial distribution matching and stable training. Comparisons with state of the art unsupervised domain adaptation methods on three popular benchmark datasets demonstrate the superiority of our approach, especially on the effectiveness of alleviating negative transfer.
Adaptation of visually guided reaching movements in novel visuomotor environments (e.g.wearing prism goggles) comprises not only motor adaptation but also substantial sensory adaptation, corresponding to shifts in the perceived spatial location of visual and proprioceptive cues. Previous computational modelsof the sensory component of visuomotor adaptation have assumed that it is driven purely by the discrepancy introduced between visual andproprioceptive estimates of hand position and is independent of any motor component of adaptation. We instead propose a unified model in which sensory and motor adaptation are jointly driven by optimal Bayesian estimation of the sensory and motor contributions to perceived errors. Our model is able to account for patterns of performance errors during visuomotor adaptationas well as the subsequent perceptual aftereffects. This unified model also makes the surprising prediction that force field adaptation willelicit similar perceptual shifts, even though there is never any discrepancy between visual and proprioceptive observations. We confirm this prediction with an experiment.
Transfer learning has recently attracted significant research attention, as it simultaneously learns from different source domains, which have plenty of labeled data, and transfers the relevant knowledge to the target domain with limited labeled data to improve the prediction performance. We propose a Bayesian transfer learning framework where the source and target domains are related through the joint prior density of the model parameters. The modeling of joint prior densities enables better understanding of the "transferability" between domains. We define a joint Wishart density for the precision matrices of the Gaussian feature-label distributions in the source and target domains to act like a bridge that transfers the useful information of the source domain to help classification in the target domain by improving the target posteriors. Using several theorems in multivariate statistics, the posteriors and posterior predictive densities are derived in closed forms with hypergeometric functions of matrix argument, leading to our novel closed-form and fast Optimal Bayesian Transfer Learning (OBTL) classifier. Experimental results on both synthetic and real-world benchmark data confirm the superb performance of the OBTL compared to the other state-of-the-art transfer learning and domain adaptation methods.
This paper provides a theoretical analysis of domain adaptation based on the PAC-Bayesian theory. We propose an improvement of the previous domain adaptation bound obtained by Germain et al. in two ways. We first give another generalization bound tighter and easier to interpret. Moreover, we provide a new analysis of the constant term appearing in the bound that can be of high interest for developing new algorithmic solutions.
Population attributes are essential in health for understanding who the data represents and precision medicine efforts. Even within disease infection labels, patients can exhibit significant variability; "fever" may mean something different when reported in a doctor's office versus from an online app, precluding directly learning across different datasets for the same prediction task. This problem falls into the domain adaptation paradigm. However, research in this area has to-date not considered who generates the data; symptoms reported by a woman versus a man, for example, could also have different implications. We propose a novel population-aware domain adaptation approach by formulating the domain adaptation task as a multi-source hierarchical Bayesian framework. The model improves prediction in the case of largely unlabelled target data by harnessing both domain and population invariant information.