This paper proposes a novel dynamic Hierarchical Dirichlet Process topic model that considers the dependence between successive observations. Conventional posterior inference algorithms for this kind of models require processing of the whole data through several passes. It is computationally intractable for massive or sequential data. We design the batch and online inference algorithms, based on the Gibbs sampling, for the proposed model. It allows to process sequential data, incrementally updating the model by a new observation. The model is applied to abnormal behaviour detection in video sequences. A new abnormality measure is proposed for decision making. The proposed method is compared with the method based on the non- dynamic Hierarchical Dirichlet Process, for which we also derive the online Gibbs sampler and the abnormality measure. The results with synthetic and real data show that the consideration of the dynamics in a topic model improves the classification performance for abnormal behaviour detection.
Semi-supervised and unsupervised systems provide operators with invaluable support and can tremendously reduce the operators load. In the light of the necessity to process large volumes of video data and provide autonomous decisions, this work proposes new learning algorithms for activity analysis in video. The activities and behaviours are described by a dynamic topic model. Two novel learning algorithms based on the expectation maximisation approach and variational Bayes inference are proposed. Theoretical derivations of the posterior of model parameters are given. The designed learning algorithms are compared with the Gibbs sampling inference scheme introduced earlier in the literature. A detailed comparison of the learning algorithms is presented on real video data. We also propose an anomaly localisation procedure, elegantly embedded in the topic modeling framework. The proposed framework can be applied to a number of areas, including transportation systems, security and surveillance.
A single, stationary topic model such as latent Dirichlet allocation is inappropriate for modeling corpora that span long time periods, as the popularity of topics is likely to change over time. A number of models that incorporate time have been proposed, but in general they either exhibit limited forms of temporal variation, or require computationally expensive inference methods. In this paper we propose non-parametric Topics over Time (npTOT), a model for time-varying topics that allows an unbounded number of topics and exible distribution over the temporal variations in those topics' popularity. We develop a collapsed Gibbs sampler for the proposed model and compare against existing models on synthetic and real document sets.
We present the nested Chinese restaurant process (nCRP), a stochastic process which assigns probability distributions to infinitely-deep, infinitely-branching trees. We show how this stochastic process can be used as a prior distribution in a Bayesian nonparametric model of document collections. Specifically, we present an application to information retrieval in which documents are modeled as paths down a random tree, and the preferential attachment dynamics of the nCRP leads to clustering of documents according to sharing of topics at multiple levels of abstraction. Given a corpus of documents, a posterior inference algorithm finds an approximation to a posterior distribution over trees, topics and allocations of words to levels of the tree. We demonstrate this algorithm on collections of scientific abstracts from several journals. This model exemplifies a recent trend in statistical machine learning--the use of Bayesian nonparametric methods to infer distributions on flexible data structures.
The increasing volume of short texts generated on social media sites, such as Twitter or Facebook, creates a great demand for effective and efficient topic modeling approaches. While latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) can be applied, it is not optimal due to its weakness in handling short texts with fast-changing topics and scalability concerns. In this paper, we propose a transfer learning approach that utilizes abundant labeled documents from other domains (such as Yahoo! News or Wikipedia) to improve topic modeling, with better model fitting and result interpretation. Specifically, we develop Transfer Hierarchical LDA (thLDA) model, which incorporates the label information from other domains via informative priors. In addition, we develop a parallel implementation of our model for large-scale applications. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our thLDA model on both a microblogging dataset and standard text collections including AP and RCV1 datasets.