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On Convergence and Stability of GANs

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We propose studying GAN training dynamics as regret minimization, which is in contrast to the popular view that there is consistent minimization of a divergence between real and generated distributions. We analyze the convergence of GAN training from this new point of view to understand why mode collapse happens. We hypothesize the existence of undesirable local equilibria in this non-convex game to be responsible for mode collapse. We observe that these local equilibria often exhibit sharp gradients of the discriminator function around some real data points. We demonstrate that these degenerate local equilibria can be avoided with a gradient penalty scheme called DRAGAN. We show that DRAGAN enables faster training, achieves improved stability with fewer mode collapses, and leads to generator networks with better modeling performance across a variety of architectures and objective functions.


Unbalanced GANs: Pre-training the Generator of Generative Adversarial Network using Variational Autoencoder

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We propose Unbalanced GANs, which pre-trains the generator of the generative adversarial network (GAN) using variational autoencoder (VAE). We guarantee the stable training of the generator by preventing the faster convergence of the discriminator at early epochs. Furthermore, we balance between the generator and the discriminator at early epochs and thus maintain the stabilized training of GANs. We apply Unbalanced GANs to well known public datasets and find that Unbalanced GANs reduce mode collapses. We also show that Unbalanced GANs outperform ordinary GANs in terms of stabilized learning, faster convergence and better image quality at early epochs.


Evolutionary Generative Adversarial Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Generative adversarial networks (GAN) have been effective for learning generative models for real-world data. However, existing GANs (GAN and its variants) tend to suffer from training problems such as instability and mode collapse. In this paper, we propose a novel GAN framework called evolutionary generative adversarial networks (E-GAN) for stable GAN training and improved generative performance. Unlike existing GANs, which employ a pre-defined adversarial objective function alternately training a generator and a discriminator, we utilize different adversarial training objectives as mutation operations and evolve a population of generators to adapt to the environment (i.e., the discriminator). We also utilize an evaluation mechanism to measure the quality and diversity of generated samples, such that only well-performing generator(s) are preserved and used for further training. In this way, E-GAN overcomes the limitations of an individual adversarial training objective and always preserves the best offspring, contributing to progress in and the success of GANs. Experiments on several datasets demonstrate that E-GAN achieves convincing generative performance and reduces the training problems inherent in existing GANs.


Comparing Generative Adversarial Network Techniques for Image Creation and Modification

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Generative adversarial networks (GANs) have demonstrated to be successful at generating realistic real-world images. In this paper we compare various GAN techniques, both supervised and unsupervised. The effects on training stability of different objective functions are compared. We add an encoder to the network, making it possible to encode images to the latent space of the GAN. The generator, discriminator and encoder are parameterized by deep convolutional neural networks. For the discriminator network we experimented with using the novel Capsule Network, a state-of-the-art technique for detecting global features in images. Experiments are performed using a digit and face dataset, with various visualizations illustrating the results. The results show that using the encoder network it is possible to reconstruct images. With the conditional GAN we can alter visual attributes of generated or encoded images. The experiments with the Capsule Network as discriminator result in generated images of a lower quality, compared to a standard convolutional neural network.


A Novel Framework for Selection of GANs for an Application

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) is a current focal point of research. The body of knowledge is fragmented, leading to a trial-error method while selecting an appropriate GAN for a given scenario. We provide a comprehensive summary of the evolution of GANs starting from its inception addressing issues like mode collapse, vanishing gradient, unstable training and non-convergence. We also provide a comparison of various GANs from the application point of view, its behaviour and implementation details. We propose a novel framework to identify candidate GANs for a specific use case based on architecture, loss, regularization and divergence. We also discuss application of the framework using an example, and we demonstrate a significant reduction in search space. This efficient way to determine potential GANs lowers unit economics of AI development for organizations.