Reinforcement Learning-based Thermal Comfort Control for Vehicle Cabins

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Vehicle climate control systems aim to keep passengers thermally comfortable. However, current systems control temperature rather than thermal comfort and tend to be energy hungry, which is of particular concern when considering electric vehicles. This paper poses energy-efficient vehicle comfort control as a Markov Decision Process, which is then solved numerically using Sarsa({\lambda}) and an empirically validated, single-zone, 1D thermal model of the cabin. The resulting controller was tested in simulation using 200 randomly selected scenarios and found to exceed the performance of bang-bang, proportional, simple fuzzy logic, and commercial controllers with 23%, 43%, 40%, 56% increase, respectively. Compared to the next best performing controller, energy consumption is reduced by 13% while the proportion of time spent thermally comfortable is increased by 23%. These results indicate that this is a viable approach that promises to translate into substantial comfort and energy improvements in the car.


bartMachine: Machine Learning with Bayesian Additive Regression Trees

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We present a new package in R implementing Bayesian additive regression trees (BART). The package introduces many new features for data analysis using BART such as variable selection, interaction detection, model diagnostic plots, incorporation of missing data and the ability to save trees for future prediction. It is significantly faster than the current R implementation, parallelized, and capable of handling both large sample sizes and high-dimensional data.


Designing unmanned aerial vehicle trajectories for energy minimization

#artificialintelligence

A team of researchers at the University of Luxembourg and the University of Ontario Institute of Technology have recently proposed a new approach to design trajectories for energy-efficient unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-enabled wireless communications. Their paper, prepublished on arXiv, specifically focuses on cases in which an UAV acts as a flying base station (BS) to serve ground users (GSs) within some predetermined latency constraints. "Our goal is to design the UAV trajectory to minimize the total energy consumption while satisfying the RT requirement and energy budget, which is accomplished via jointly optimizing the trajectory and UAV's velocities along subsequent hops," the researchers wrote in their paper. Optimizing a UAV's trajectory and its velocities together can be somewhat difficult to achieve. To do so, the researchers developed an approach that carries out two consecutive steps.


A General Framework for Uncertainty Estimation in Deep Learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

End-to-end learning has recently emerged as a promising technique to tackle the problem of autonomous driving. Existing works show that learning a navigation policy from raw sensor data may reduce the system's reliance on external sensing systems, (e.g. GPS), and/or outperform traditional methods based on state estimation and planning. However, existing end-to-end methods generally trade off performance for safety, hindering their diffusion to real-life applications. For example, when confronted with an input which is radically different from the training data, end-to-end autonomous driving systems are likely to fail, compromising the safety of the vehicle. To detect such failure cases, this work proposes a general framework for uncertainty estimation which enables a policy trained end-to-end to predict not only action commands, but also a confidence about its own predictions. In contrast to previous works, our framework can be applied to any existing neural network and task, without the need to change the network's architecture or loss, or to train the network. In order to do so, we generate confidence levels by forward propagation of input and model uncertainties using Bayesian inference. We test our framework on the task of steering angle regression for an autonomous car, and compare our approach to existing methods with both qualitative and quantitative results on a real dataset. Finally, we show an interesting by-product of our framework: robustness against adversarial attacks.


Statistical Anomaly Detection for Train Fleets

AAAI Conferences

We have developed a method for statistical anomaly detection which has been deployed in a tool for condition monitoring of train fleets. The tool is currently used by several railway operators over the world to inspect and visualize the occurrence of event messages generated on the trains. The anomaly detection component helps the operators to quickly find significant deviations from normal behavior and to detect early indications for possible problems. The savings in maintenance costs comes mainly from avoiding costly breakdowns, and have been estimated to several million Euros per year for the tool. In the long run, it is expected that maintenance costs can be reduced with between 5 and 10 % by using the tool.