Choi, Hee-Sun, An, Junmo, Kim, Jin-Gyun, Jung, Jae-Yoon, Choi, Juhwan, Orzechowski, Grzegorz, Mikkola, Aki, Choi, Jin Hwan

In this paper, a machine learning-based simulation framework of general-purpose multibody dynamics is introduced. The aim of the framework is to generate a well-trained meta-model of multibody dynamics (MBD) systems. To this end, deep neural network (DNN) is employed to the framework so as to construct data-based meta-model representing multibody systems. Constructing well-defined training data set with time variable is essential to get accurate and reliable motion data such as displacement, velocity, acceleration, and forces. As a result of the introduced approach, the meta-model provides motion estimation of system dynamics without solving the analytical equations of motion. The performance of the proposed DNN meta-modeling was evaluated to represent several MBD systems.

Roehrl, Manuel A., Runkler, Thomas A., Brandtstetter, Veronika, Tokic, Michel, Obermayer, Stefan

Identifying accurate dynamic models is required for the simulation and control of various technical systems. In many important real-world applications, however, the two main modeling approaches often fail to meet requirements: first principles methods suffer from high bias, whereas data-driven modeling tends to have high variance. Additionally, purely data-based models often require large amounts of data and are often difficult to interpret. In this paper, we present physics-informed neural ordinary differential equations (PINODE), a hybrid model that combines the two modeling techniques to overcome the aforementioned problems. This new approach directly incorporates the equations of motion originating from the Lagrange Mechanics into a deep neural network structure. Thus, we can integrate prior physics knowledge where it is available and use function approximation--e. g., neural networks--where it is not. The method is tested with a forward model of a real-world physical system with large uncertainties. The resulting model is accurate and data-efficient while ensuring physical plausibility. With this, we demonstrate a method that beneficially merges physical insight with real data. Our findings are of interest for model-based control and system identification of mechanical systems.

Lutter, Michael, Ritter, Christian, Peters, Jan

Deep learning has achieved astonishing results on many tasks with large amounts of data and generalization within the proximity of training data. For many important real-world applications, these requirements are unfeasible and additional prior knowledge on the task domain is required to overcome the resulting problems. In particular, learning physics models for model-based control requires robust extrapolation from fewer samples - often collected online in real-time - and model errors may lead to drastic damages of the system. Directly incorporating physical insight has enabled us to obtain a novel deep model learning approach that extrapolates well while requiring fewer samples. As a first example, we propose Deep Lagrangian Networks (DeLaN) as a deep network structure upon which Lagrangian Mechanics have been imposed. DeLaN can learn the equations of motion of a mechanical system (i.e., system dynamics) with a deep network efficiently while ensuring physical plausibility. The resulting DeLaN network performs very well at robot tracking control. The proposed method did not only outperform previous model learning approaches at learning speed but exhibits substantially improved and more robust extrapolation to novel trajectories and learns online in real-time.

Heiden, Eric, Millard, David, Zhang, Hejia, Sukhatme, Gaurav S.

Intelligent agents need a physical understanding of the world to predict the impact of their actions in the future. While learning-based models of the environment dynamics have contributed to significant improvements in sample efficiency compared to model-free reinforcement learning algorithms, they typically fail to generalize to system states beyond the training data, while often grounding their predictions on non-interpretable latent variables. We introduce Interactive Differentiable Simulation (IDS), a differentiable physics engine, that allows for efficient, accurate inference of physical properties of rigid-body systems. Integrated into deep learning architectures, our model is able to accomplish system identification using visual input, leading to an interpretable model of the world whose parameters have physical meaning. We present experiments showing automatic task-based robot design and parameter estimation for nonlinear dynamical systems by automatically calculating gradients in IDS. When integrated into an adaptive model-predictive control algorithm, our approach exhibits orders of magnitude improvements in sample efficiency over model-free reinforcement learning algorithms on challenging nonlinear control domains.

Finzi, Marc, Wang, Ke Alexander, Wilson, Andrew Gordon

Reasoning about the physical world requires models that are endowed with the right inductive biases to learn the underlying dynamics. Recent works improve generalization for predicting trajectories by learning the Hamiltonian or Lagrangian of a system rather than the differential equations directly. While these methods encode the constraints of the systems using generalized coordinates, we show that embedding the system into Cartesian coordinates and enforcing the constraints explicitly with Lagrange multipliers dramatically simplifies the learning problem. We introduce a series of challenging chaotic and extended-body systems, including systems with N-pendulums, spring coupling, magnetic fields, rigid rotors, and gyroscopes, to push the limits of current approaches. Our experiments show that Cartesian coordinates with explicit constraints lead to a 100x improvement in accuracy and data efficiency.