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Signature-Based Abduction for Expressive Description Logics -- Technical Report Artificial Intelligence

Signature-based abduction aims at building hypotheses over a specified set of names, the signature, that explain an observation relative to some background knowledge. This type of abduction is useful for tasks such as diagnosis, where the vocabulary used for observed symptoms differs from the vocabulary expected to explain those symptoms. We present the first complete method solving signature-based abduction for observations expressed in the expressive description logic ALC, which can include TBox and ABox axioms, thereby solving the knowledge base abduction problem. The method is guaranteed to compute a finite and complete set of hypotheses, and is evaluated on a set of realistic knowledge bases.

ABox Abduction via Forgetting in ALC (Long Version) Artificial Intelligence

Abductive reasoning generates explanatory hypotheses for new observations using prior knowledge. This paper investigates the use of forgetting, also known as uniform interpolation, to perform ABox abduction in description logic (ALC) ontologies. Non-abducibles are specified by a forgetting signature which can contain concept, but not role, symbols. The resulting hypotheses are semantically minimal and each consist of a set of disjuncts. These disjuncts are each independent explanations, and are not redundant with respect to the background ontology or the other disjuncts, representing a form of hypothesis space. The observations and hypotheses handled by the method can contain both atomic or complex ALC concepts, excluding role assertions, and are not restricted to Horn clauses. Two approaches to redundancy elimination are explored for practical use: full and approximate. Using a prototype implementation, experiments were performed over a corpus of real world ontologies to investigate the practicality of both approaches across several settings.

Query and Predicate Emptiness in Ontology-Based Data Access

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

In ontology-based data access (OBDA), database querying is enriched with an ontology that provides domain knowledge and additional vocabulary for query formulation. We identify query emptiness and predicate emptiness as two central reasoning services in this context. Query emptiness asks whether a given query has an empty answer over all databases formulated in a given vocabulary. Predicate emptiness is defined analogously, but quantifies universally over all queries that contain a given predicate. In this paper, we determine the computational complexity of query emptiness and predicate emptiness in the EL, DL-Lite, and ALC-families of description logics, investigate the connection to ontology modules, and perform a practical case study to evaluate the new reasoning services.

Reasoning about Explanations for Negative Query Answers in DL-Lite

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

In order to meet usability requirements, most logic-based applications provide explanation facilities for reasoning services. This holds also for Description Logics, where research has focused on the explanation of both TBox reasoning and, more recently, query answering. Besides explaining the presence of a tuple in a query answer, it is important to explain also why a given tuple is missing. We address the latter problem for instance and conjunctive query answering over DL-Lite ontologies by adopting abductive reasoning; that is, we look for additions to the ABox that force a given tuple to be in the result. As reasoning tasks we consider existence and recognition of an explanation, and relevance and necessity of a given assertion for an explanation. We characterize the computational complexity of these problems for arbitrary, subset minimal, and cardinality minimal explanations.

On Finite and Unrestricted Query Entailment beyond SQ with Number Restrictions on Transitive Roles Artificial Intelligence

We study the description logic SQ with number restrictions applicable to transitive roles, extended with either nominals or inverse roles. We show tight 2EXPTIME upper bounds for unrestricted entailment of regular path queries for both extensions and finite entailment of positive existential queries for nominals. For inverses, we establish 2EXPTIME-completeness for unrestricted and finite entailment of instance queries (the latter under restriction to a single, transitive role).