Du, Jianfeng (Guangdong University of Foreign Studies) | Wang, Kewen (Griffith University) | Shen, Yi-Dong (Chinese Academy of Sciences)

ABox abduction is an important reasoning mechanism for description logic ontologies. It computes all minimal explanations (sets of ABox assertions) whose appending to a consistent ontology enforces the entailment of an observation while keeps the ontology consistent. We focus on practical computation for a general problem of ABox abduction, called the query abduction problem, where an observation is a Boolean conjunctive query and the explanations may contain fresh individuals neither in the ontology nor in the observation. However, in this problem there can be infinitely many minimal explanations. Hence we first identify a class of TBoxes called first-order rewritable TBoxes. It guarantees the existence of finitely many minimal explanations and is sufficient for many ontology applications. To reduce the number of explanations that need to be computed, we introduce a special kind of minimal explanations called representative explanations from which all minimal explanations can be retrieved. We develop a tractable method (in data complexity) for computing all representative explanations in a consistent ontology. xperimental results demonstrate that the method is efficient and scalable for ontologies with large ABoxes.

Chitsaz, Mahsa (Griffith University) | Wang, Zhe (Griffith University) | Wang, Kewen (Griffith University)

With the current upward trend in semantically annotated data, ontology-based data access (OBDA) was formulated to tackle the problem of data integration and query answering, where an ontology is formalized as a description logic TBox. In order to meet usability requirements set by users, efforts have been made to equip OBDA system with explanation facilities. One important explanation tool for DL ontologies, referred to as query abduction, can be formalised as abductive reasoning. In particular, given an ontology and an observation (i.e., a query with an answer), an explanation to the observation is a set of facts that together with the ontology can entail the observation. In this paper, we develop a sound and complete algorithm of query abduction for general conjunctive queries in ELH ontologies. This is achieved through ontology approximation and query rewriting. We implemented a prototypical system using the highly optimized Prolog engine XSB. We evaluated our algorithm over university benchmark ontology and our experimental results show that the system is capable of handling query abduction problems for ontology that has approximately 10 millions ABox assertions.

Du, Jianfeng (Guangdong University of Foreign Studies) | Qi, Guilin (Southeast University) | Shen, Yi-Dong (Chinese Academy of Sciences) | Pan, Jeff Z. (The University of Aberdeen)

ABox abduction is an important aspect for abductive reasoning in Description Logics (DLs). It finds all minimal sets of ABox axioms that should be added to a background ontology to enforce entailment of a specified set of ABox axioms. As far as we know, by now there is only one ABox abduction method in expressive DLs computing abductive solutions with certain minimality. However, the method targets an ABox abduction problem that may have infinitely many abductive solutions and may not output an abductive solution in finite time. Hence, in this paper we propose a new ABox abduction problem which has only finitely many abductive solutions and also propose a novel method to solve it. The method reduces the original problem to an abduction problem in logic programming and solves it with Prolog engines. Experimental results show that the method is able to compute abductive solutions in benchmark OWL DL ontologies with large ABoxes.

Koopmann, Patrick, Del-Pinto, Warren, Tourret, Sophie, Schmidt, Renate A.

Signature-based abduction aims at building hypotheses over a specified set of names, the signature, that explain an observation relative to some background knowledge. This type of abduction is useful for tasks such as diagnosis, where the vocabulary used for observed symptoms differs from the vocabulary expected to explain those symptoms. We present the first complete method solving signature-based abduction for observations expressed in the expressive description logic ALC, which can include TBox and ABox axioms, thereby solving the knowledge base abduction problem. The method is guaranteed to compute a finite and complete set of hypotheses, and is evaluated on a set of realistic knowledge bases.

Del-Pinto, Warren, Schmidt, Renate A.

Abductive reasoning generates explanatory hypotheses for new observations using prior knowledge. This paper investigates the use of forgetting, also known as uniform interpolation, to perform ABox abduction in description logic (ALC) ontologies. Non-abducibles are specified by a forgetting signature which can contain concept, but not role, symbols. The resulting hypotheses are semantically minimal and each consist of a set of disjuncts. These disjuncts are each independent explanations, and are not redundant with respect to the background ontology or the other disjuncts, representing a form of hypothesis space. The observations and hypotheses handled by the method can contain both atomic or complex ALC concepts, excluding role assertions, and are not restricted to Horn clauses. Two approaches to redundancy elimination are explored for practical use: full and approximate. Using a prototype implementation, experiments were performed over a corpus of real world ontologies to investigate the practicality of both approaches across several settings.