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Semi-Supervised Learning with Scarce Annotations

arXiv.org Machine Learning

While semi-supervised learning (SSL) algorithms provide an efficient way to make use of both labelled and unlabelled data, they generally struggle when the number of annotated samples is very small. In this work, we consider the problem of SSL multi-class classification with very few labelled instances. We introduce two key ideas. The first is a simple but effective one: we leverage the power of transfer learning among different tasks and self-supervision to initialize a good representation of the data without making use of any label. The second idea is a new algorithm for SSL that can exploit well such a pre-trained representation. The algorithm works by alternating two phases, one fitting the labelled points and one fitting the unlabelled ones, with carefully-controlled information flow between them. The benefits are greatly reducing overfitting of the labelled data and avoiding issue with balancing labelled and unlabelled losses during training. We show empirically that this method can successfully train competitive models with as few as 10 labelled data points per class. More in general, we show that the idea of bootstrapping features using self-supervised learning always improves SSL on standard benchmarks. We show that our algorithm works increasingly well compared to other methods when refining from other tasks or datasets.


Semi-Supervised Learning of Visual Features by Non-Parametrically Predicting View Assignments with Support Samples

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper proposes a novel method of learning by predicting view assignments with support samples (PAWS). The method trains a model to minimize a consistency loss, which ensures that different views of the same unlabeled instance are assigned similar pseudo-labels. The pseudo-labels are generated non-parametrically, by comparing the representations of the image views to those of a set of randomly sampled labeled images. The distance between the view representations and labeled representations is used to provide a weighting over class labels, which we interpret as a soft pseudo-label. By non-parametrically incorporating labeled samples in this way, PAWS extends the distance-metric loss used in self-supervised methods such as BYOL and SwAV to the semi-supervised setting. Despite the simplicity of the approach, PAWS outperforms other semi-supervised methods across architectures, setting a new state-of-the-art for a ResNet-50 on ImageNet trained with either 10% or 1% of the labels, reaching 75.5% and 66.5% top-1 respectively. PAWS requires 4x to 12x less training than the previous best methods.


Two Cycle Learning: Clustering Based Regularisation for Deep Semi-Supervised Classification

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This works addresses the challenge of classification with minimal annotations. Obtaining annotated data is time consuming, expensive and can require expert knowledge. As a result, there is an acceleration towards semi-supervised learning (SSL) approaches which utilise large amounts of unlabelled data to improve classification performance. The vast majority of SSL approaches have focused on implementing the \textit{low-density separation assumption}, in which the idea is that decision boundaries should lie in low density regions. However, they have implemented this assumption by treating the dataset as a set of individual attributes rather than as a global structure, which limits the overall performance of the classifier. Therefore, in this work, we go beyond this implementation and propose a novel SSL framework called two-cycle learning. For the first cycle, we use clustering based regularisation that allows for improved decision boundaries as well as features that generalises well. The second cycle is set as a graph based SSL that take advantages of the richer discriminative features of the first cycle to significantly boost the accuracy of generated pseudo-labels. We evaluate our two-cycle learning method extensively across multiple datasets, outperforming current approaches.


Repetitive Reprediction Deep Decipher for Semi-Supervised Learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Most recent semi-supervised deep learning (deep SSL) methods used a similar paradigm: use network predictions to update pseudo-labels and use pseudo-labels to update network parameters iteratively. However, they lack theoretical support and can not explain why predictions are good candidates for pseudo-labels. In this paper, we propose a principled end-to-end framework named deep decipher (D2) for SSL. With the D2 framework, we prove that pseudo-labels are related to network predictions by an exponential link function, which gives a theoretical support for using predictions as pseudo-labels. Furthermore, we demonstrate that updating pseudo-labels by network predictions will make them uncertain. To mitigate this problem, we propose a training strategy called repetitive reprediction (R2). Finally, the proposed R2-D2 method is tested on the large-scale ImageNet dataset and outperforms state-of-the-art methods by $5\%$.


GraphXCOVID: Explainable Deep Graph Diffusion Pseudo-Labelling for Identifying COVID-19 on Chest X-rays

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Can one learn to diagnose COVID-19 under extreme minimal supervision? Since the outbreak of the novel COVID-19 there has been a rush for developing Artificial Intelligence techniques for expert-level disease identification on Chest X-ray data. In particular, the use of deep supervised learning has become the go-to paradigm. However, the performance of such models is heavily dependent on the availability of a large and representative labelled dataset. The creation of which is a heavily expensive and time consuming task, and especially imposes a great challenge for a novel disease. Semi-supervised learning has shown the ability to match the incredible performance of supervised models whilst requiring a small fraction of the labelled examples. This makes the semi-supervised paradigm an attractive option for identifying COVID-19. In this work, we introduce a graph based deep semi-supervised framework for classifying COVID-19 from chest X-rays. Our framework introduces an optimisation model for graph diffusion that reinforces the natural relation among the tiny labelled set and the vast unlabelled data. We then connect the diffusion prediction output as pseudo-labels that are used in an iterative scheme in a deep net. We demonstrate, through our experiments, that our model is able to outperform the current leading supervised model with a tiny fraction of the labelled examples. Finally, we provide attention maps to accommodate the radiologist's mental model, better fitting their perceptual and cognitive abilities. These visualisation aims to assist the radiologist in judging whether the diagnostic is correct or not, and in consequence to accelerate the decision.