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Goal-Conditioned Reinforcement Learning: Problems and Solutions

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Goal-conditioned reinforcement learning (GCRL), related to a set of complex RL problems, trains an agent to achieve different goals under particular scenarios. Compared to the standard RL solutions that learn a policy solely depending on the states or observations, GCRL additionally requires the agent to make decisions according to different goals. In this survey, we provide a comprehensive overview of the challenges and algorithms for GCRL. Firstly, we answer what the basic problems are studied in this field. Then, we explain how goals are represented and present how existing solutions are designed from different points of view. Finally, we make the conclusion and discuss potential future prospects that recent researches focus on.


Shrub Ensembles for Online Classification

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Online learning algorithms have become a ubiquitous tool in the machine learning toolbox and are frequently used in small, resource-constraint environments. Among the most successful online learning methods are Decision Tree (DT) ensembles. DT ensembles provide excellent performance while adapting to changes in the data, but they are not resource efficient. Incremental tree learners keep adding new nodes to the tree but never remove old ones increasing the memory consumption over time. Gradient-based tree learning, on the other hand, requires the computation of gradients over the entire tree which is costly for even moderately sized trees. In this paper, we propose a novel memory-efficient online classification ensemble called shrub ensembles for resource-constraint systems. Our algorithm trains small to medium-sized decision trees on small windows and uses stochastic proximal gradient descent to learn the ensemble weights of these `shrubs'. We provide a theoretical analysis of our algorithm and include an extensive discussion on the behavior of our approach in the online setting. In a series of 2~959 experiments on 12 different datasets, we compare our method against 8 state-of-the-art methods. Our Shrub Ensembles retain an excellent performance even when only little memory is available. We show that SE offers a better accuracy-memory trade-off in 7 of 12 cases, while having a statistically significant better performance than most other methods. Our implementation is available under https://github.com/sbuschjaeger/se-online .


Recommending with Recommendations

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Recommendation systems are a key modern application of machine learning, but they have the downside that they often draw upon sensitive user information in making their predictions. We show how to address this deficiency by basing a service's recommendation engine upon recommendations from other existing services, which contain no sensitive information by nature. Specifically, we introduce a contextual multi-armed bandit recommendation framework where the agent has access to recommendations for other services. In our setting, the user's (potentially sensitive) information belongs to a high-dimensional latent space, and the ideal recommendations for the source and target tasks (which are non-sensitive) are given by unknown linear transformations of the user information. So long as the tasks rely on similar segments of the user information, we can decompose the target recommendation problem into systematic components that can be derived from the source recommendations, and idiosyncratic components that are user-specific and cannot be derived from the source, but have significantly lower dimensionality. We propose an explore-then-refine approach to learning and utilizing this decomposition; then using ideas from perturbation theory and statistical concentration of measure, we prove our algorithm achieves regret comparable to a strong skyline that has full knowledge of the source and target transformations. We also consider a generalization of our algorithm to a model with many simultaneous targets and no source. Our methods obtain superior empirical results on synthetic benchmarks.


Robustness in Deep Learning for Computer Vision: Mind the gap?

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Deep neural networks for computer vision tasks are deployed in increasingly safety-critical and socially-impactful applications, motivating the need to close the gap in model performance under varied, naturally occurring imaging conditions. Robustness, ambiguously used in multiple contexts including adversarial machine learning, here then refers to preserving model performance under naturally-induced image corruptions or alterations. We perform a systematic review to identify, analyze, and summarize current definitions and progress towards non-adversarial robustness in deep learning for computer vision. We find that this area of research has received disproportionately little attention relative to adversarial machine learning, yet a significant robustness gap exists that often manifests in performance degradation similar in magnitude to adversarial conditions. To provide a more transparent definition of robustness across contexts, we introduce a structural causal model of the data generating process and interpret non-adversarial robustness as pertaining to a model's behavior on corrupted images which correspond to low-probability samples from the unaltered data distribution. We then identify key architecture-, data augmentation-, and optimization tactics for improving neural network robustness. This causal view of robustness reveals that common practices in the current literature, both in regards to robustness tactics and evaluations, correspond to causal concepts, such as soft interventions resulting in a counterfactually-altered distribution of imaging conditions. Through our findings and analysis, we offer perspectives on how future research may mind this evident and significant non-adversarial robustness gap.


EngineKGI: Closed-Loop Knowledge Graph Inference

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Knowledge Graph (KG) inference is the vital technique to address the natural incompleteness of KGs. The existing KG inference approaches can be classified into rule learning-based and KG embedding-based models. However, these approaches cannot well balance accuracy, generalization, interpretability and efficiency, simultaneously. Besides, these models always rely on pure triples and neglect additional information. Therefore, both KG embedding (KGE) and rule learning KG inference approaches face challenges due to the sparse entities and the limited semantics. We propose a novel and effective closed-loop KG inference framework EngineKGI operating similarly as an engine based on these observations. EngineKGI combines KGE and rule learning to complement each other in a closed-loop pattern while taking advantage of semantics in paths and concepts. KGE module exploits paths to enhance the semantic association between entities and introduces rules for interpretability. A novel rule pruning mechanism is proposed in the rule learning module by leveraging paths as initial candidate rules and employing KG embeddings together with concepts for extracting more high-quality rules. Experimental results on four real-world datasets show that our model outperforms other baselines on link prediction tasks, demonstrating the effectiveness and superiority of our model on KG inference in a joint logic and data-driven fashion with a closed-loop mechanism.