Representation and classification of Electroencephalography (EEG) brain signals are critical processes for their analysis in cognitive tasks. Particularly, extraction of discriminative features from raw EEG signals, without any pre-processing, is a challenging task. Motivated by nuclear norm, we observed that there is a significant difference between the variances of EEG signals captured from the same brain region when a subject performs different tasks. This observation lead us to use singular value decomposition for computing dominant variances of EEG signals captured from a certain brain region while performing a certain task and use them as features (nuclear features). A simple and efficient class means based minimum distance classifier (CMMDC) is enough to predict brain states. This approach results in the feature space of significantly small dimension and gives equally good classification results on clean as well as raw data. We validated the effectiveness and robustness of the technique using four datasets of different tasks: fluid intelligence clean data (FICD), fluid intelligence raw data (FIRD), memory recall task (MRT), and eyes open / eyes closed task (EOEC). For each task, we analyzed EEG signals over six (06) different brain regions with 8, 16, 20, 18, 18 and 100 electrodes. The nuclear features from frontal brain region gave the 100% prediction accuracy. The discriminant analysis of the nuclear features has been conducted using intra-class and inter-class variations. Comparisons with the state-of-the-art techniques showed the superiority of the proposed system.
Studies in recent years have demonstrated that neural organization and structure impact an individual's ability to perform a given task. Specifically, individuals with greater neural efficiency have been shown to outperform those with less organized functional structure. In this work, we compare the predictive ability of properties of neural connectivity on a working memory task. We provide two novel approaches for characterizing functional network connectivity from electroencephalography (EEG), and compare these features to the average power across frequency bands in EEG channels. Our first novel approach represents functional connectivity structure through the distribution of eigenvalues making up channel coherence matrices in multiple frequency bands. Our second approach creates a connectivity network at each frequency band, and assesses variability in average path lengths of connected components and degree across the network. Failures in digit and sentence recall on single trials are detected using a Gaussian classifier for each feature set, at each frequency band. The classifier results are then fused across frequency bands, with the resulting detection performance summarized using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) statistic. Fused AUC results of 0.63/0.58/0.61 for digit recall failure and 0.58/0.59/0.54 for sentence recall failure are obtained from the connectivity structure, graph variability, and channel power features respectively.
Stress research is a rapidly emerging area in thefield of electroencephalography (EEG) based signal processing.The use of EEG as an objective measure for cost effective andpersonalized stress management becomes important in particularsituations such as the non-availability of mental health facilities.In this study, long-term stress is classified using baseline EEGsignal recordings. The labelling for the stress and control groupsis performed using two methods (i) the perceived stress scalescore and (ii) expert evaluation. The frequency domain featuresare extracted from five-channel EEG recordings in addition tothe frontal and temporal alpha and beta asymmetries. The alphaasymmetry is computed from four channels and used as a feature.Feature selection is also performed using a t-test to identifystatistically significant features for both stress and control groups.We found that support vector machine is best suited to classifylong-term human stress when used with alpha asymmetry asa feature. It is observed that expert evaluation based labellingmethod has improved the classification accuracy up to 85.20%.Based on these results, it is concluded that alpha asymmetry maybe used as a potential bio-marker for stress classification, when labels are assigned using expert evaluation.
Classifying limb movements using brain activity is an important task in Brain-computer Interfaces (BCI) that has been successfully used in multiple application domains, ranging from human-computer interaction to medical and biomedical applications. This paper proposes a novel solution for classification of left/right hand movement by exploiting a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) network with attention mechanism to learn from sequential data available in the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. In this context, a wide range of time and frequency domain features are first extracted from the EEG signal and are then evaluated using a Random Forest (RF) to select the most important features. The selected features are arranged as a spatio-temporal sequence to feed the LSTM network, learning from the sequential data to perform the classification task. We conduct extensive experiments with the EEG motor movement/imagery database and show that our proposed solution achieves effective results outperforming baseline methods and the state-of-the-art in both intra-subject and cross-subject evaluation schemes. Moreover, we utilize the proposed framework to analyze the information as received by the sensors and monitor the activated regions of the brain by tracking EEG topography throughout the experiments.
Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) are an interesting emerging technology that is driven by the motivation to develop an effective communication interface translatinghuman intentions into a control signal for devices like computers or neuroprostheses. If this can be done bypassing the usual human outputpathways like peripheral nerves and muscles it can ultimately become a valuable tool for paralyzed patients.