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Mini-Batch Semi-Stochastic Gradient Descent in the Proximal Setting

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We propose mS2GD: a method incorporating a mini-batching scheme for improving the theoretical complexity and practical performance of semi-stochastic gradient descent (S2GD). We consider the problem of minimizing a strongly convex function represented as the sum of an average of a large number of smooth convex functions, and a simple nonsmooth convex regularizer. Our method first performs a deterministic step (computation of the gradient of the objective function at the starting point), followed by a large number of stochastic steps. The process is repeated a few times with the last iterate becoming the new starting point. The novelty of our method is in introduction of mini-batching into the computation of stochastic steps. In each step, instead of choosing a single function, we sample $b$ functions, compute their gradients, and compute the direction based on this. We analyze the complexity of the method and show that it benefits from two speedup effects. First, we prove that as long as $b$ is below a certain threshold, we can reach any predefined accuracy with less overall work than without mini-batching. Second, our mini-batching scheme admits a simple parallel implementation, and hence is suitable for further acceleration by parallelization.


Accelerated Mini-Batch Stochastic Dual Coordinate Ascent

Neural Information Processing Systems

Stochastic dual coordinate ascent (SDCA) is an effective technique for solving regularized loss minimization problems in machine learning. This paper considers an extension of SDCA under the mini-batch setting that is often used in practice. Our main contribution is to introduce an accelerated mini-batch version of SDCA and prove a fast convergence rate for this method. We discuss an implementation of our method over a parallel computing system, and compare the results to both the vanilla stochastic dual coordinate ascent and to the accelerated deterministic gradient descent method of Nesterov [2007].


Quartz: Randomized Dual Coordinate Ascent with Arbitrary Sampling

Neural Information Processing Systems

We study the problem of minimizing the average of a large number of smooth convex functions penalized with a strongly convex regularizer. We propose and analyze a novel primal-dual method (Quartz) which at every iteration samples and updates a random subset of the dual variables, chosen according to an arbitrary distribution. In contrast to typical analysis, we directly bound the decrease of the primal-dual error (in expectation), without the need to first analyze the dual error. Depending on the choice of the sampling, we obtain efficient serial and mini-batch variants of the method. In the serial case, our bounds match the best known bounds for SDCA (both with uniform and importance sampling). With standard mini-batching, our bounds predict initial data-independent speedup as well as additional data-driven speedup which depends on spectral and sparsity properties of the data.


Importance Sampling for Minibatches

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Minibatching is a very well studied and highly popular technique in supervised learning, used by practitioners due to its ability to accelerate training through better utilization of parallel processing power and reduction of stochastic variance. Another popular technique is importance sampling -- a strategy for preferential sampling of more important examples also capable of accelerating the training process. However, despite considerable effort by the community in these areas, and due to the inherent technical difficulty of the problem, there is no existing work combining the power of importance sampling with the strength of minibatching. In this paper we propose the first {\em importance sampling for minibatches} and give simple and rigorous complexity analysis of its performance. We illustrate on synthetic problems that for training data of certain properties, our sampling can lead to several orders of magnitude improvement in training time. We then test the new sampling on several popular datasets, and show that the improvement can reach an order of magnitude.


SEGA: Variance Reduction via Gradient Sketching

Neural Information Processing Systems

We propose a novel randomized first order optimization method---SEGA (SkEtched GrAdient method)---which progressively throughout its iterations builds a variance-reduced estimate of the gradient from random linear measurements (sketches) of the gradient provided at each iteration by an oracle. In each iteration, SEGA updates the current estimate of the gradient through a sketch-and-project operation using the information provided by the latest sketch, and this is subsequently used to compute an unbiased estimate of the true gradient through a random relaxation procedure. This unbiased estimate is then used to perform a gradient step. Unlike standard subspace descent methods, such as coordinate descent, SEGA can be used for optimization problems with a non-separable proximal term. We provide a general convergence analysis and prove linear convergence for strongly convex objectives. In the special case of coordinate sketches, SEGA can be enhanced with various techniques such as importance sampling, minibatching and acceleration, and its rate is up to a small constant factor identical to the best-known rate of coordinate descent.