Collaborating Authors

Deep State Space Models for Unconditional Word Generation

Neural Information Processing Systems

Autoregressive feedback is considered a necessity for successful unconditional text generation using stochastic sequence models. However, such feedback is known to introduce systematic biases into the training process and it obscures a principle of generation: committing to global information and forgetting local nuances. We show that a non-autoregressive deep state space model with a clear separation of global and local uncertainty can be built from only two ingredients: An independent noise source and a deterministic transition function. Recent advances on flow-based variational inference can be used to train an evidence lower-bound without resorting to annealing, auxiliary losses or similar measures. The result is a highly interpretable generative model on par with comparable auto-regressive models on the task of word generation.

Towards better decoding and language model integration in sequence to sequence models Machine Learning

The recently proposed Sequence-to-Sequence (seq2seq) framework advocates replacing complex data processing pipelines, such as an entire automatic speech recognition system, with a single neural network trained in an end-to-end fashion. In this contribution, we analyse an attention-based seq2seq speech recognition system that directly transcribes recordings into characters. We observe two shortcomings: overconfidence in its predictions and a tendency to produce incomplete transcriptions when language models are used. We propose practical solutions to both problems achieving competitive speaker independent word error rates on the Wall Street Journal dataset: without separate language models we reach 10.6% WER, while together with a trigram language model, we reach 6.7% WER.

TopicRNN: A Recurrent Neural Network with Long-Range Semantic Dependency Artificial Intelligence

In this paper, we propose TopicRNN, a recurrent neural network (RNN)-based language model designed to directly capture the global semantic meaning relating words in a document via latent topics. Because of their sequential nature, RNNs are good at capturing the local structure of a word sequence - both semantic and syntactic - but might face difficulty remembering long-range dependencies. Intuitively, these long-range dependencies are of semantic nature. In contrast, latent topic models are able to capture the global underlying semantic structure of a document but do not account for word ordering. The proposed TopicRNN model integrates the merits of RNNs and latent topic models: it captures local (syntactic) dependencies using an RNN and global (semantic) dependencies using latent topics. Unlike previous work on contextual RNN language modeling, our model is learned end-to-end. Empirical results on word prediction show that TopicRNN outperforms existing contextual RNN baselines. In addition, TopicRNN can be used as an unsupervised feature extractor for documents. We do this for sentiment analysis on the IMDB movie review dataset and report an error rate of $6.28\%$. This is comparable to the state-of-the-art $5.91\%$ resulting from a semi-supervised approach. Finally, TopicRNN also yields sensible topics, making it a useful alternative to document models such as latent Dirichlet allocation.

Context Models for OOV Word Translation in Low-Resource Languages Machine Learning

Out-of-vocabulary word translation is a major problem for the translation of low-resource languages that suffer from a lack of parallel training data. This paper evaluates the contributions of target-language context models towards the translation of OOV words, specifically in those cases where OOV translations are derived from external knowledge sources, such as dictionaries. We develop both neural and non-neural context models and evaluate them within both phrase-based and self-attention based neural machine translation systems. Our results show that neural language models that integrate additional context beyond the current sentence are the most effective in disambiguating possible OOV word translations. We present an efficient second-pass lattice-rescoring method for wide-context neural language models and demonstrate performance improvements over state-of-the-art self-attention based neural MT systems in five out of six low-resource language pairs.

Latent Space Secrets of Denoising Text-Autoencoders Machine Learning

While neural language models have recently demonstrated impressive performance in unconditional text generation, controllable generation and manipulation of text remain challenging. Latent variable generative models provide a natural approach for control, but their application to text has proven more difficult than to images. Models such as variational autoencoders may suffer from posterior collapse or learning an irregular latent geometry. We propose to instead employ adversarial autoencoders (AAEs) and add local perturbations by randomly replacing/removing words from input sentences during training. Within the prior enforced by the adversary, structured perturbations in the data space begin to carve and organize the latent space. Theoretically, we prove that perturbations encourage similar sentences to map to similar latent representations. Experimentally, we investigate the trade-off between text-generation and autoencoder-reconstruction capabilities. Our straightforward approach significantly improves over regular AAEs as well as other autoencoders, and enables altering the tense/sentiment of sentences through simple addition of a fixed vector offset to their latent representation.