MOPED: Efficient priors for scalable variational inference in Bayesian deep neural networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Variational inference for Bayesian deep neural networks (DNNs) requires specifying priors and approximate posterior distributions for neural network weights. Specifying meaningful weight priors is a challenging problem, particularly for scaling variational inference to deeper architectures involving high dimensional weight space. We propose Bayesian MOdel Priors Extracted from Deterministic DNN (MOPED) method for stochastic variational inference to choose meaningful prior distributions over weight space using deterministic weights derived from the pretrained DNNs of equivalent architecture. We evaluate the proposed approach on multiple datasets and real-world application domains with a range of varying complex model architectures to demonstrate MOPED enables scalable variational inference for Bayesian DNNs. The proposed method achieves faster training convergence and provides reliable uncertainty quantification, without compromising on the accuracy provided by the deterministic DNNs. We also propose hybrid architectures to Bayesian DNNs where deterministic and variational layers are combined to balance computation complexity during prediction phase and while providing benefits of Bayesian inference. We will release the source code for this work.


Optimal strategies for the control of autonomous vehicles in data assimilation

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We propose a method to compute optimal control paths for autonomous vehicles deployed for the purpose of inferring a velocity field. In addition to being advected by the flow, the vehicles are able to effect a fixed relative speed with arbitrary control over direction. It is this direction that is used as the basis for the locally optimal control algorithm presented here, with objective formed from the variance trace of the expected posterior distribution. We present results for linear flows near hyperbolic fixed points.


Flexible Models for Microclustering with Application to Entity Resolution

Neural Information Processing Systems

Most generative models for clustering implicitly assume that the number of data points in each cluster grows linearly with the total number of data points. Finite mixture models, Dirichlet process mixture models, and Pitman-Yor process mixture models make this assumption, as do all other infinitely exchangeable clustering models. However, for some applications, this assumption is inappropriate. For example, when performing entity resolution, the size of each cluster should be unrelated to the size of the data set, and each cluster should contain a negligible fraction of the total number of data points. These applications require models that yield clusters whose sizes grow sublinearly with the size of the data set. We address this requirement by defining the microclustering property and introducing a new class of models that can exhibit this property. We compare models within this class to two commonly used clustering models using four entity-resolution data sets.


Closed-Loop Policies for Operational Tests of Safety-Critical Systems

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Manufacturers of safety-critical systems must make the case that their product is sufficiently safe for public deployment. Much of this case often relies upon critical event outcomes from real-world testing, requiring manufacturers to be strategic about how they allocate testing resources in order to maximize their chances of demonstrating system safety. This work frames the partially observable and belief-dependent problem of test scheduling as a Markov decision process, which can be solved efficiently to yield closed-loop manufacturer testing policies. By solving for policies over a wide range of problem formulations, we are able to provide high-level guidance for manufacturers and regulators on issues relating to the testing of safety-critical systems. This guidance spans an array of topics, including circumstances under which manufacturers should continue testing despite observed incidents, when manufacturers should test aggressively, and when regulators should increase or reduce the real-world testing requirements for an autonomous vehicle.


Asymptotically Unambitious Artificial General Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

General intelligence, the ability to solve arbitrary solvable problems, is supposed by many to be artificially constructible. Narrow intelligence, the ability to solve a given particularly difficult problem, has seen impressive recent development. Notable examples include self-driving cars, Go engines, image classifiers, and translators. Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) presents dangers that narrow intelligence does not: if something smarter than us across every domain were indifferent to our concerns, it would be an existential threat to humanity, just as we threaten many species despite no ill will. Even the theory of how to maintain the alignment of an AGI's goals with our own has proven highly elusive. We present the first algorithm we are aware of for asymptotically unambitious AGI, where "unambitiousness" includes not seeking arbitrary power. Thus, we identify an exception to the Instrumental Convergence Thesis, which is roughly that by default, an AGI would seek power, including over us.