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Adversarial Phenomenon in the Eyes of Bayesian Deep Learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Deep Learning models are vulnerable to adversarial examples, i.e.\ images obtained via deliberate imperceptible perturbations, such that the model misclassifies them with high confidence. However, class confidence by itself is an incomplete picture of uncertainty. We therefore use principled Bayesian methods to capture model uncertainty in prediction for observing adversarial misclassification. We provide an extensive study with different Bayesian neural networks attacked in both white-box and black-box setups. The behaviour of the networks for noise, attacks and clean test data is compared. We observe that Bayesian neural networks are uncertain in their predictions for adversarial perturbations, a behaviour similar to the one observed for random Gaussian perturbations. Thus, we conclude that Bayesian neural networks can be considered for detecting adversarial examples.


Uncertainty-Aware Learning from Demonstration using Mixture Density Networks with Sampling-Free Variance Modeling

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this paper, we propose an uncertainty-aware learning from demonstration method by presenting a novel uncertainty estimation method utilizing a mixture density network appropriate for modeling complex and noisy human behaviors. The proposed uncertainty acquisition can be done with a single forward path without Monte Carlo sampling and is suitable for real-time robotics applications. The properties of the proposed uncertainty measure are analyzed through three different synthetic examples, absence of data, heavy measurement noise, and composition of functions scenarios. We show that each case can be distinguished using the proposed uncertainty measure and presented an uncertainty-aware learn- ing from demonstration method of an autonomous driving using this property. The proposed uncertainty-aware learning from demonstration method outperforms other compared methods in terms of safety using a complex real-world driving dataset.


Spatial Uncertainty Sampling for End-to-End Control

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

End-to-end trained neural networks (NNs) are a compelling approach to autonomous vehicle control because of their ability to learn complex tasks without manual engineering of rule-based decisions. However, challenging road conditions, ambiguous navigation situations, and safety considerations require reliable uncertainty estimation for the eventual adoption of full-scale autonomous vehicles. Bayesian deep learning approaches provide a way to estimate uncertainty by approximating the posterior distribution of weights given a set of training data. Dropout training in deep NNs approximates Bayesian inference in a deep Gaussian process and can thus be used to estimate model uncertainty. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian NN for end-to-end control that estimates uncertainty by exploiting feature map correlation during training. This approach achieves improved model fits, as well as tighter uncertainty estimates, than traditional element-wise dropout. We evaluate our algorithms on a challenging dataset collected over many different road types, times of day, and weather conditions, and demonstrate how uncertainties can be used in conjunction with a human controller in a parallel autonomous setting.


Safe end-to-end imitation learning for model predictive control

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We propose the use of Bayesian networks, which provide both a mean value and an uncertainty estimate as output, to enhance the safety of learned control policies under circumstances in which a test-time input differs significantly from the training set. Our algorithm combines reinforcement learning and end-to-end imitation learning to simultaneously learn a control policy as well as a threshold over the predictive uncertainty of the learned model, with no hand-tuning required. Corrective action, such as a return of control to the model predictive controller or human expert, is taken when the uncertainty threshold is exceeded. We validate our method on fully-observable and vision-based partially-observable systems using cart-pole and autonomous driving simulations using deep convolutional Bayesian neural networks. We demonstrate that our method is robust to uncertainty resulting from varying system dynamics as well as from partial state observability.


Deep Evidential Regression

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Deterministic neural networks (NNs) are increasingly being deployed in safety critical domains, where calibrated, robust and efficient measures of uncertainty are crucial. While it is possible to train regression networks to output the parameters of a probability distribution by maximizing a Gaussian likelihood function, the resulting model remains oblivious to the underlying confidence of its predictions. In this paper, we propose a novel method for training deterministic NNs to not only estimate the desired target but also the associated evidence in support of that target. We accomplish this by placing evidential priors over our original Gaussian likelihood function and training our NN to infer the hyperparameters of our evidential distribution. We impose priors during training such that the model is penalized when its predicted evidence is not aligned with the correct output. Thus the model estimates not only the probabilistic mean and variance of our target but also the underlying uncertainty associated with each of those parameters. We observe that our evidential regression method learns well-calibrated measures of uncertainty on various benchmarks, scales to complex computer vision tasks, and is robust to adversarial input perturbations.