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Using Hindsight to Anchor Past Knowledge in Continual Learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In continual learning, the learner faces a stream of data whose distribution changes over time. Modern neural networks are known to suffer under this setting, as they quickly forget previously acquired knowledge. To address such catastrophic forgetting, many continual learning methods implement different types of experience replay, re-learning on past data stored in a small buffer known as episodic memory. In this work, we complement experience replay with a new objective that we call anchoring, where the learner uses bilevel optimization to update its knowledge on the current task, while keeping intact the predictions on some anchor points of past tasks. These anchor points are learned using gradient-based optimization to maximize forgetting, which is approximated by fine-tuning the currently trained model on the episodic memory of past tasks. Experiments on several supervised learning benchmarks for continual learning demonstrate that our approach improves the standard experience replay in terms of both accuracy and forgetting metrics and for various sizes of episodic memories.


Efficient Lifelong Learning with A-GEM

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In lifelong learning, the learner is presented with a sequence of tasks, incrementally building a data-driven prior which may be leveraged to speed up learning of a new task. In this work, we investigate the efficiency of current lifelong approaches, in terms of sample complexity, computational and memory cost. Towards this end, we first introduce a new and a more realistic evaluation protocol, whereby learners observe each example only once and hyper-parameter selection is done on a small and disjoint set of tasks, which is not used for the actual learning experience and evaluation. Second, we introduce a new metric measuring how quickly a learner acquires a new skill. Third, we propose an improved version of GEM (Lopez-Paz & Ranzato, 2017), dubbed Averaged GEM (A-GEM), which enjoys the same or even better performance as GEM, while being almost as computationally and memory efficient as EWC (Kirkpatrick et al., 2016) and other regularization-based methods. Finally, we show that all algorithms including A-GEM can learn even more quickly if they are provided with task descriptors specifying the classification tasks under consideration. Our experiments on several standard lifelong learning benchmarks demonstrate that A-GEM has the best trade-off between accuracy and efficiency.


Online Continual Learning with Maximally Interfered Retrieval

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Continual learning, the setting where a learning agent is faced with a never ending stream of data, continues to be a great challenge for modern machine learning systems. In particular the online or "single-pass through the data" setting has gained attention recently as a natural setting that is difficult to tackle. Methods based on replay, either generative or from a stored memory, have been shown to be effective approaches for continual learning, matching or exceeding the state of the art in a number of standard benchmarks. These approaches typically rely on randomly selecting samples from the replay memory or from a generative model, which is suboptimal. In this work we consider a controlled sampling of memories for replay. We retrieve the samples which are most interfered, i.e. whose prediction will be most negatively impacted by the foreseen parameters update. We show a formulation for this sampling criterion in both the generative replay and the experience replay setting, producing consistent gains in performance and greatly reduced forgetting.


Online Learned Continual Compression with Stacked Quantization Module

arXiv.org Machine Learning

A BSTRACT We introduce and study the problem of Online Continual Compression, where one attempts to learn to compress and store a representative dataset from a non i.i.d data stream, while only observing each sample once. This problem is highly relevant for downstream online continual learning tasks, as well as standard learning methods under resource constrained data collection. To address this we propose a new architecture which Stacks Quantization Modules (SQM), consisting of a series of discrete autoencoders, each equipped with their own memory. Every added module is trained to reconstruct the latent space of the previous module using fewer bits, allowing the learned representation to become more compact as training progresses. This modularity has several advantages: 1) moderate compressions are quickly available early in training, which is crucial for remembering the early tasks, 2) as more data needs to be stored, earlier data becomes more compressed, freeing memory, 3) unlike previous methods, our approach does not require pretraining, even on challenging datasets. We show several potential applications of this method. We first replace the episodic memory used in Experience Replay with SQM, leading to significant gains on standard continual learning benchmarks using a fixed memory budget. We then apply our method to online compression of larger images like those from Imagenet, and show that it is also effective with other modalities, such as LiDAR data. 1 I NTRODUCTION Interest in machine learning in recent years has been fueled by the plethora of data being generated on a regular basis. Effectively storing and using this data is critical for many applications, especially those involving continual learning. In general, compression techniques can greatly improve data storage capacity, and, if done well, reduce the memory and compute usage in downstream machine learning tasks (Gueguen et al., 2018; Oyallon et al., 2018). Thus, learned compression has become a topic of great interest (Theis et al., 2017; Ball e et al., 2016; Johnston et al., 2018).


Conditional Channel Gated Networks for Task-Aware Continual Learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Convolutional Neural Networks experience catastrophic forgetting when optimized on a sequence of learning problems: as they meet the objective of the current training examples, their performance on previous tasks drops drastically. In this work, we introduce a novel framework to tackle this problem with conditional computation. We equip each convolutional layer with task-specific gating modules, selecting which filters to apply on the given input. This way, we achieve two appealing properties. Firstly, the execution patterns of the gates allow to identify and protect important filters, ensuring no loss in the performance of the model for previously learned tasks. Secondly, by using a sparsity objective, we can promote the selection of a limited set of kernels, allowing to retain sufficient model capacity to digest new tasks.Existing solutions require, at test time, awareness of the task to which each example belongs to. This knowledge, however, may not be available in many practical scenarios. Therefore, we additionally introduce a task classifier that predicts the task label of each example, to deal with settings in which a task oracle is not available. We validate our proposal on four continual learning datasets. Results show that our model consistently outperforms existing methods both in the presence and the absence of a task oracle. Notably, on Split SVHN and Imagenet-50 datasets, our model yields up to 23.98% and 17.42% improvement in accuracy w.r.t. competing methods.