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Modelling Multi-Agent Epistemic Planning in ASP

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Designing agents that reason and act upon the world has always been one of the main objectives of the Artificial Intelligence community. While for planning in "simple" domains the agents can solely rely on facts about the world, in several contexts, e.g., economy, security, justice and politics, the mere knowledge of the world could be insufficient to reach a desired goal. In these scenarios, epistemic reasoning, i.e., reasoning about agents' beliefs about themselves and about other agents' beliefs, is essential to design winning strategies. This paper addresses the problem of reasoning in multi-agent epistemic settings exploiting declarative programming techniques. In particular, the paper presents an actual implementation of a multi-shot Answer Set Programming-based planner that can reason in multi-agent epistemic settings, called PLATO (ePistemic muLti-agent Answer seT programming sOlver). The ASP paradigm enables a concise and elegant design of the planner, w.r.t. other imperative implementations, facilitating the development of formal verification of correctness. The paper shows how the planner, exploiting an ad-hoc epistemic state representation and the efficiency of ASP solvers, has competitive performance results on benchmarks collected from the literature. It is under consideration for acceptance in TPLP.


CASP Solutions for Planning in Hybrid Domains

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

CASP is an extension of ASP that allows for numerical constraints to be added in the rules. PDDL+ is an extension of the PDDL standard language of automated planning for modeling mixed discrete-continuous dynamics. In this paper, we present CASP solutions for dealing with PDDL+ problems, i.e., encoding from PDDL+ to CASP, and extensions to the algorithm of the EZCSP CASP solver in order to solve CASP programs arising from PDDL+ domains. An experimental analysis, performed on well-known linear and non-linear variants of PDDL+ domains, involving various configurations of the EZCSP solver, other CASP solvers, and PDDL+ planners, shows the viability of our solution.


Formalisation of Action with Durations in Answer Set Programming

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this paper, I will discuss the work I am currently doing as a Ph.D. student at the University of Potsdam, under the tutoring of T. Schaub. I'm currently looking into action description in ASP. More precisely, my goal is to explore how to represent actions with durations in ASP, in different contexts. Right now, I'm focused on Multi-Agent Path Finding (MAPF), looking at how to represent speeds for different agents and contexts. Before tackling duration, I wanted to explore and compare different representations of action taking in ASP. For this, I started comparing different simple encodings tackling the MAPF problem. Even in simple code, choices and assumptions have been made in their creations. The objective of my work is to present the consequences of those design decisions in terms of performance and knowledge representation. As far as I know, there is no current research on this topic. Besides that, I'm also exploring different ways to represent duration and to solve related problems. I planed to compare them the same way I described before. I also want this to help me find innovative and effective ways to solve problems with duration.


Planning with Preferences

AI Magazine

Automated Planning is an old area of AI that focuses on the development of techniques for finding a plan that achieves a given goal from a given set of initial states as quickly as possible. In most real-world applications, users of planning systems have preferences over the multitude of plans that achieve a given goal. These preferences allow to distinguish plans that are more desirable from those that are less desirable. Planning systems should therefore be able to construct high-quality plans, or at the very least they should be able to build plans that have a reasonably good quality given the resources available.In the last few years we have seen a significant amount of research that has focused on developing rich and compelling languages for expressing preferences over plans. On the other hand, we have seen the development of planning techniques that aim at finding high-quality plans quickly, exploiting some of the ideas developed for classical planning. In this paper we review the latest developments in automated preference-based planning. We also review various approaches for preference representation, and the main practical approaches developed so far.


An Action Language for Multi-Agent Domains: Foundations

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In multi-agent domains (MADs), an agent's action may not just change the world and the agent's knowledge and beliefs about the world, but also may change other agents' knowledge and beliefs about the world and their knowledge and beliefs about other agents' knowledge and beliefs about the world. The goals of an agent in a multi-agent world may involve manipulating the knowledge and beliefs of other agents' and again, not just their knowledge/belief about the world, but also their knowledge about other agents' knowledge about the world. Our goal is to present an action language (mA+) that has the necessary features to address the above aspects in representing and RAC in MADs. mA+ allows the representation of and reasoning about different types of actions that an agent can perform in a domain where many other agents might be present -- such as world-altering actions, sensing actions, and announcement/communication actions. It also allows the specification of agents' dynamic awareness of action occurrences which has future implications on what agents' know about the world and other agents' knowledge about the world. mA+ considers three different types of awareness: full-, partial- awareness, and complete oblivion of an action occurrence and its effects. This keeps the language simple, yet powerful enough to address a large variety of knowledge manipulation scenarios in MADs. The semantics of mA+ relies on the notion of state, which is described by a pointed Kripke model and is used to encode the agent's knowledge and the real state of the world. It is defined by a transition function that maps pairs of actions and states into sets of states. We illustrate properties of the action theories, including properties that guarantee finiteness of the set of initial states and their practical implementability. Finally, we relate mA+ to other related formalisms that contribute to RAC in MADs.