Dirichlet process mixture of Gaussians (DPMG) has been used in the literature for clustering and density estimation problems. However, many real-world data exhibit cluster distributions that cannot be captured by a single Gaussian. Modeling such data sets by DPMG creates several extraneous clusters even when clusters are relatively well-defined. Herein, we present the infinite mixture of infinite Gaussian mixtures (I2GMM) for more flexible modeling of data sets with skewed and multi-modal cluster distributions. Instead of using a single Gaussian for each cluster as in the standard DPMG model, the generative model of I2GMM uses a single DPMG for each cluster. The individual DPMGs are linked together through centering of their base distributions at the atoms of a higher level DP prior. Inference is performed by a collapsed Gibbs sampler that also enables partial parallelization. Experimental results on several artificial and real-world data sets suggest the proposed I2GMM model can predict clusters more accurately than existing variational Bayes and Gibbs sampler versions of DPMG.
Gates are a new notation for representing mixture models and context-sensitive independence in factor graphs. Factor graphs provide a natural representation for message-passing algorithms, such as expectation propagation. However, message passing in mixture models is not well captured by factor graphs unless the entire mixture is represented by one factor, because the message equations have a containment structure. Gates capture this containment structure graphically, allowing both the independences and the message-passing equations for a model to be readily visualized. Different variational approximations for mixture models can be understood as different ways of drawing the gates in a model. We present general equations for expectation propagation and variational message passing in the presence of gates.
Nonparametric Bayesian approaches to clustering, information retrieval, language modeling and object recognition have recently shown great promise as a new paradigm for unsupervised data analysis. Most contributions have focused on the Dirichlet process mixture models or extensions thereof for which efficient Gibbs samplers exist. In this paper we explore Gibbs samplers for infinite complexity mixture models in the stick breaking representation. The advantage of this representation is improved modeling flexibility. For instance, one can design the prior distribution over cluster sizes or couple multiple infinite mixture models (e.g. over time) at the level of their parameters (i.e. the dependent Dirichlet process model). However, Gibbs samplers for infinite mixture models (as recently introduced in the statistics literature) seem to mix poorly over cluster labels. Among others issues, this can have the adverse effect that labels for the same cluster in coupled mixture models are mixed up. We introduce additional moves in these samplers to improve mixing over cluster labels and to bring clusters into correspondence. An application to modeling of storm trajectories is used to illustrate these ideas.
Biclustering is a class of techniques that simultaneously clusters the rows and columns of a matrix to sort heterogeneous data into homogeneous blocks. Although many algorithms have been proposed to find biclusters, existing methods suffer from the pre-specification of the number of biclusters or place constraints on the model structure. To address these issues, we develop a novel, non-parametric probabilistic biclustering method based on Dirichlet processes to identify biclusters with strong co-occurrence in both rows and columns. The proposed method utilizes dual Dirichlet process mixture models to learn row and column clusters, with the number of resulting clusters determined by the data rather than pre-specified. Probabilistic biclusters are identified by modeling the mutual dependence between the row and column clusters. We apply our method to two different applications, text mining and gene expression analysis, and demonstrate that our method improves bicluster extraction in many settings compared to existing approaches.
We present a novel MCMC sampler for Dirichlet process mixture models that can be used for conjugate or non-conjugate prior distributions. The proposed sampler can be massively parallelized to achieve significant computational gains. A non-ergodic restricted Gibbs iteration is mixed with split/merge proposals to produce a valid sampler. Each regular cluster is augmented with two sub-clusters to construct likely split moves. Unlike many previous parallel samplers, the proposed sampler accurately enforces the correct stationary distribution of the Markov chain without the need for approximate models. Empirical results illustrate that the new sampler exhibits better convergence properties than current methods.