The inherent difficulty of knowledge specification and the lack of trained specialists are some of the key obstacles on the way to making intelligent systems based on the knowledge representation and reasoning (KRR) paradigm commonplace. Knowledge and query authoring using natural language, especially controlled natural language (CNL), is one of the promising approaches that could enable domain experts, who are not trained logicians, to both create formal knowledge and query it. In previous work, we introduced the KALM system (Knowledge Authoring Logic Machine) that supports knowledge authoring (and simple querying) with very high accuracy that at present is unachievable via machine learning approaches. The present paper expands on the question answering aspect of KALM and introduces KALM-QA (KALM for Question Answering) that is capable of answering much more complex English questions. We show that KALM-QA achieves 100% accuracy on an extensive suite of movie-related questions, called MetaQA, which contains almost 29,000 test questions and over 260,000 training questions. We contrast this with a published machine learning approach, which falls far short of this high mark. It is under consideration for acceptance in TPLP.
This paper introduces TakeFive, a new semantic role labeling method that transforms a text into a frame-oriented knowledge graph. It performs dependency parsing, identifies the words that evoke lexical frames, locates the roles and fillers for each frame, runs coercion techniques, and formalises the results as a knowledge graph. This formal representation complies with the frame semantics used in Framester, a factual-linguistic linked data resource. The obtained precision, recall and F1 values indicate that TakeFive is competitive with other existing methods such as SEMAFOR, Pikes, PathLSTM and FRED. We finally discuss how to combine TakeFive and FRED, obtaining higher values of precision, recall and F1. Keywords: Semantic Role Labeling, Frame Semantics, Framester, Dependency Parsing, Role Oriented Knowledge Graphs 1. Introduction Most knowledge in linked data and knowledge graphs is of a relational nature: people participating in events, products having prices, artifacts with parts, works of art produced by artists, beers sold at a bar, etc. For that reason, a good part of integration and interoperability ends up consisting in aligning relations among heterogeneous schemas and data. This limit makes interoperability difficult.
Concerned about the Turing test's ability to correctly evaluate if a system exhibits human-like intelligence, the Winograd Schema Challenge (WSC) has been proposed as an alternative. A Winograd Schema consists of a sentence and a question. The answers to the questions are intuitive for humans but are designed to be difficult for machines, as they require various forms of commonsense knowledge about the sentence. In this paper we demonstrate our progress towards addressing the WSC. We present an approach that identifies the knowledge needed to answer a challenge question, hunts down that knowledge from text repositories, and then reasons with them to come up with the answer. In the process we develop a semantic parser (www.kparser.org). We show that our approach works well with respect to a subset of Winograd schemas.
Computational systems that learn to transform naturallanguage sentences into semantic representations have important practical applications in building naturallanguage interfaces. They can also provide insight into important issues in human language acquisition. However, within AI, computational linguistics, and machine learning, there has been relatively little research on developing systems that learn such semantic parsers. This paper briefly reviews our own work in this area and presents semantic-parser acquistion as an important challenge problem for AI.
One of the key concerns in computational semantics is to construct a domain independent semantic representation which captures the richness of natural language, yet can be quickly customized to a specific domain for practical applications. We propose to use generic semantic frames defined in FrameNet, a domain-independent semantic resource, as an intermediate semantic representation for language understanding in dialog systems. In this paper we: (a) outline a novel method for FrameNet-style semantic dependency labeling that builds on a syntactic dependency parse; and (b) compare the accuracy of domain-adapted and generic approaches to semantic parsing for dialog tasks, using a frame-annotated corpus of human-computer dialogs in an airline reservation domain.