Linear Bandit algorithms using the Bootstrap Machine Learning

This study presents two new algorithms for solving linear stochastic bandit problems. The proposed methods use an approach from non-parametric statistics called bootstrapping to create confidence bounds. This is achieved without making any assumptions about the distribution of noise in the underlying system. We present the X-Random and X-Fixed bootstrap bandits which correspond to the two well-known approaches for conducting bootstraps on models, in the literature. The proposed methods are compared to other popular solutions for linear stochastic bandit problems, namely, OFUL, LinUCB and Thompson Sampling. The comparisons are carried out using a simulation study on a hierarchical probability meta-model, built from published data of experiments, which are run on real systems. The model representing the response surfaces is conceptualized as a Bayesian Network which is presented with varying degrees of noise for the simulations. One of the proposed methods, X-Random bootstrap, performs better than the baselines in-terms of cumulative regret across various degrees of noise and different number of trials. In certain settings the cumulative regret of this method is less than half of the best baseline. The X-Fixed bootstrap performs comparably in most situations and particularly well when the number of trials is low. The study concludes that these algorithms could be a preferred alternative for solving linear bandit problems, especially when the distribution of the noise in the system is unknown.

Garbage In, Reward Out: Bootstrapping Exploration in Multi-Armed Bandits Machine Learning

We propose a multi-armed bandit algorithm that explores based on randomizing its history. The key idea is to estimate the value of the arm from the bootstrap sample of its history, where we add pseudo observations after each pull of the arm. The pseudo observations seem to be harmful. But on the contrary, they guarantee that the bootstrap sample is optimistic with a high probability. Because of this, we call our algorithm Giro, which is an abbreviation for garbage in, reward out. We analyze Giro in a $K$-armed Bernoulli bandit and prove a $O(K \Delta^{-1} \log n)$ bound on its $n$-round regret, where $\Delta$ denotes the difference in the expected rewards of the optimal and best suboptimal arms. The main advantage of our exploration strategy is that it can be applied to any reward function generalization, such as neural networks. We evaluate Giro and its contextual variant on multiple synthetic and real-world problems, and observe that Giro is comparable to or better than state-of-the-art algorithms.

Bootstrapped Thompson Sampling and Deep Exploration Machine Learning

This technical note presents a new approach to carrying out the kind of exploration achieved by Thompson sampling, but without explicitly maintaining or sampling from posterior distributions. The approach is based on a bootstrap technique that uses a combination of observed and artificially generated data. The latter serves to induce a prior distribution which, as we will demonstrate, is critical to effective exploration. We explain how the approach can be applied to multi-armed bandit and reinforcement learning problems and how it relates to Thompson sampling. The approach is particularly well-suited for contexts in which exploration is coupled with deep learning, since in these settings, maintaining or generating samples from a posterior distribution becomes computationally infeasible.

Computing p-values of LiNGAM outputs via Multiscale Bootstrap Machine Learning

Structural equation models and Bayesian networks have been widely used to study causal relationships between continuous variables. Recently, a non-Gaussian method called LiNGAM was proposed to discover such causal models and has been extended in various directions. An important problem with LiNGAM is that the results are affected by the random sampling of the data as with any statistical method. Thus, some analysis of the statistical reliability or confidence level should be conducted. A common method to evaluate a confidence level is a bootstrap method. However, a confidence level computed by ordinary bootstrap method is known to be biased as a probability-value ($p$-value) of hypothesis testing. In this paper, we propose a new procedure to apply an advanced bootstrap method called multiscale bootstrap to compute confidence levels, i.e., p-values, of LiNGAM outputs. The multiscale bootstrap method gives unbiased $p$-values with asymptotic much higher accuracy. Experiments on artificial data demonstrate the utility of our approach.

A Double Parametric Bootstrap Test for Topic Models Machine Learning

Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) is a technique for finding latent representations of data. The method has been applied to corpora to construct topic models. However, NMF has likelihood assumptions which are often violated by real document corpora. We present a double parametric bootstrap test for evaluating the fit of an NMF-based topic model based on the duality of the KL divergence and Poisson maximum likelihood estimation. The test correctly identifies whether a topic model based on an NMF approach yields reliable results in simulated and real data.