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### Stochastic Convergence Results for Regularized Actor-Critic Methods

In this paper, we present a stochastic convergence proof, under suitable conditions, of a certain class of actor-critic algorithms for finding approximate solutions to entropy-regularized MDPs using the machinery of stochastic approximation. To obtain this overall result, we provide three fundamental results that are all of both practical and theoretical interest: we prove the convergence of policy evaluation with general regularizers when using linear approximation architectures, we derive an entropy-regularized policy gradient theorem, and we show convergence of entropy-regularized policy improvement. We also provide a simple, illustrative empirical study corroborating our theoretical results. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time such results have been provided for approximate solution methods for regularized MDPs.

### The Convergence of Contrastive Divergences

We relate the algorithm to the stochastic approximation literature.This enables us to specify conditions under which the algorithm is guaranteed to converge to the optimal solution (with probability 1).This includes necessary and sufficient conditions for the solution to be unbiased.

### Finite-Time Error Bounds For Linear Stochastic Approximation and TD Learning

We consider the dynamics of a linear stochastic approximation algorithm driven by Markovian noise, and derive finite-time bounds on the moments of the error, i.e., deviation of the output of the algorithm from the equilibrium point of an associated ordinary differential equation (ODE). To obtain finite-time bounds on the mean-square error in the case of constant step-size algorithms, our analysis uses Stein's method to identify a Lyapunov function that can potentially yield good steady-state bounds, and uses this Lyapunov function to obtain finite-time bounds by mimicking the corresponding steps in the analysis of the associated ODE. We also provide a comprehensive treatment of the moments of the square of the 2-norm of the approximation error. Our analysis yields the following results: (i) for a given step-size, we show that the lower-order moments can be made small as a function of the step-size and can be upper-bounded by the moments of a Gaussian random variable; (ii) we show that the higher-order moments beyond a threshold may be infinite in steady-state; and (iii) we characterize the number of samples needed for the finite-time bounds to be of the same order as the steady-state bounds. As a by-product of our analysis, we also solve the open problem of obtaining finite-time bounds for the performance of temporal difference learning algorithms with linear function approximation and a constant step-size, without requiring a projection step or an i.i.d. noise assumption.

### Neural networks as Interacting Particle Systems: Asymptotic convexity of the Loss Landscape and Universal Scaling of the Approximation Error

Neural networks, a central tool in machine learning, have demonstrated remarkable, high fidelity performance on image recognition and classification tasks. These successes evince an ability to accurately represent high dimensional functions, potentially of great use in computational and applied mathematics. That said, there are few rigorous results about the representation error and trainability of neural networks, as well as how they scale with the network size. Here we characterize both the error and scaling by reinterpreting the standard optimization algorithm used in machine learning applications, stochastic gradient descent, as the evolution of a particle system with interactions governed by a potential related to the objective or "loss" function used to train the network. We show that, when the number \$n\$ of parameters is large, the empirical distribution of the particles descends on a convex landscape towards a minimizer at a rate independent of \$n\$. We establish a Law of Large Numbers and a Central Limit Theorem for the empirical distribution, which together show that the approximation error of the network universally scales as \$o(n^{-1})\$. Remarkably, these properties do not depend on the dimensionality of the domain of the function that we seek to represent. Our analysis also quantifies the scale and nature of the noise introduced by stochastic gradient descent and provides guidelines for the step size and batch size to use when training a neural network. We illustrate our findings on examples in which we train neural network to learn the energy function of the continuous 3-spin model on the sphere. The approximation error scales as our analysis predicts in as high a dimension as \$d=25\$.

### Stable Robbins-Monro approximations through stochastic proximal updates

The need for parameter estimation with massive data has reinvigorated interest in iterative estimation procedures. Stochastic approximations, such as stochastic gradient descent, are at the forefront of this recent development because they yield simple, generic, and extremely fast iterative estimation procedures. Such stochastic approximations, however, are often numerically unstable. As a consequence, current practice has turned to proximal operators, which can induce stable parameter updates within iterations. While the majority of classical iterative estimation procedures are subsumed by the framework of Robbins and Monro (1951), there is no such generalization for stochastic approximations with proximal updates. In this paper, we conceptualize a general stochastic approximation method with proximal updates. This method can be applied even in situations where the analytical form of the objective is not known, and so it generalizes many stochastic gradient procedures with proximal operators currently in use. Our theoretical analysis indicates that the proposed method has important stability benefits over the classical stochastic approximation method. Exact instantiations of the proposed method are challenging, but we show that approximate instantiations lead to procedures that are easy to implement, and still dominate classical procedures by achieving numerical stability without tradeoffs. This last advantage is akin to that seen in deterministic proximal optimization, where the framework is typically impossible to instantiate exactly, but where approximate instantiations lead to new optimization procedures that dominate classical ones.