A high-bias, low-variance introduction to Machine Learning for physicists

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Machine Learning (ML) is one of the most exciting and dynamic areas of modern research and application. The purpose of this review is to provide an introduction to the core concepts and tools of machine learning in a manner easily understood and intuitive to physicists. The review begins by covering fundamental concepts in ML and modern statistics such as the bias-variance tradeoff, overfitting, regularization, and generalization before moving on to more advanced topics in both supervised and unsupervised learning. Topics covered in the review include ensemble models, deep learning and neural networks, clustering and data visualization, energy-based models (including MaxEnt models and Restricted Boltzmann Machines), and variational methods. Throughout, we emphasize the many natural connections between ML and statistical physics. A notable aspect of the review is the use of Python notebooks to introduce modern ML/statistical packages to readers using physics-inspired datasets (the Ising Model and Monte-Carlo simulations of supersymmetric decays of proton-proton collisions). We conclude with an extended outlook discussing possible uses of machine learning for furthering our understanding of the physical world as well as open problems in ML where physicists maybe able to contribute. (Notebooks are available at https://physics.bu.edu/~pankajm/MLnotebooks.html )


Creating machines that understand language is AI's next big challenge

#artificialintelligence

About halfway through a particularly tense game of Go held in Seoul, South Korea, between Lee Sedol, one of the best players of all time, and AlphaGo, an artificial intelligence created by Google, the AI program made a mysterious move that demonstrated an unnerving edge over its human opponent. On move 37, AlphaGo chose to put a black stone in what seemed, at first, like a ridiculous position. It looked certain to give up substantial territory--a rookie mistake in a game that is all about controlling the space on the board. Two television commentators wondered if they had misread the move or if the machine had malfunctioned somehow. In fact, contrary to any conventional wisdom, move 37 would enable AlphaGo to build a formidable foundation in the center of the board. The Google program had effectively won the game using a move that no human would've come up with. One reason that understanding language is so difficult for computers and AI systems is that words often have meanings based on context and even the appearance of the letters and words. In the images that accompany this story, several artists demonstrate the use of a variety of visual clues to convey meanings far beyond the actual letters.


SS04-01-031.pdf

AAAI Conferences

This paper describes the design and implementation of a new, simplified, entry-level RoboCup league and its integration into an introductory robotics and artificial intelligence curriculum. This E-League allows teams to focus on individual aspects such as hardware platform development or multi agent coordination, because the league provides modular solutions for several components and lets teams concentrate on chosen area(s) instead of requiring that all teams solve all aspects of a coordinated RoboCup team.


Building Brains: How Pearson Plans To Automate Education With AI

#artificialintelligence

On a balmy summer's day in San Francisco, Milena Marinova is sitting on the roof terrace of the offices of Pearson, a company in the midst of a radical transformation from publishing powerhouse to digital-education platform, wrapped in a gray shawl and explaining how she plans to build advanced, deep-learning algorithms that could educate the next generation of students. This is no easy task. With millions of students using its education-software, Pearson has amassed "terrabytes" of data from student homework and even textbooks that have been digitized, data that Marinova is now pulling together to build software that can automatically give students feedback on their work like a teacher would. Instead of just telling them that an answer is right or wrong, a future update to Pearson's math homework tool will give more detailed feedback on how they went wrong in the steps taken to get an answer, Marinova told Forbes in an interview. Pearson is starting with math because the topic is relatively easy to structure and digitize.


Building Brains: How Pearson Plans To Automate Education With AI

#artificialintelligence

On a balmy summer's day in San Francisco, Milena Marinova is sitting on the roof terrace of the offices of Pearson, a company in the midst of a radical transformation from publishing powerhouse to digital-education platform, wrapped in a gray shawl and explaining how she plans to build advanced, deep-learning algorithms that could educate the next generation of students. This is no easy task. With millions of students using its education-software, Pearson has amassed "terrabytes" of data from student homework and even textbooks that have been digitized, data that Marinova is now pulling together to build software that can automatically give students feedback on their work like a teacher would. Instead of just telling them that an answer is right or wrong, a future update to Pearson's math homework tool will give more detailed feedback on how they went wrong in the steps taken to get an answer, Marinova told Forbes in an interview. Pearson is starting with math because the topic is relatively easy to structure and digitize.