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Trust Dynamics in Human Autonomous Vehicle Interaction: A Review of Trust Models

AAAI Conferences

Several ongoing research projects in Human autonomous car interactions are addressing the problem of safe co-existence for human and robot drivers on road. Automation in cars can vary across a continuum of levels at which it can replace manual tasks. Social relationships like anthropomorphic behavior of owners towards their cars is also expected to vary according to this spectrum of autonomous decision making capacity. Some researchers have proposed a joint cognitive model of a human-car collaboration that can make the best of the respective strengths of humans and machines. For a successful collaboration, it is important that the members of this human - car team develop, maintain and update each others behavioral models. We consider mutual trust as an integral part of these models. In this paper, we present a review of the quantitative models of trust in automation. We found that only a few models of humans’ trust on automation exist in literature that account for the dynamic nature of trust and may be leveraged in human car interaction. However, these models do not support mutual trust. Our review suggests that there is significant scope for future research in the domain of mutual trust modeling for human car interaction, especially, when considered over the lifetime of the vehicle. Hardware and computational framework (for sensing, data aggregation, processing and modeling) must be developed to support these adaptive models over the operational phase of autonomous vehicles. In order to further research in mutual human - automation trust, we propose a framework for integrating Mutual Trust compu- tation into standard Human - Robot Interaction research platforms. This framework includes User trust and Agent trust, the two fundamental components of Mutual trust. It allows us to harness multi-modal sensor data from the car as well as from the user’s wearable or handheld device. The proposed framework provides access to prior trust aggregate and other cars’ experience data from the Cloud and to feature primitives like gaze, facial expression, etc. from a standard low-cost Human - Robot Interaction platform.


"Who is Driving around Me?" Unique Vehicle Instance Classification using Deep Neural Features

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Being aware of other traffic is a prerequisite for self-driving cars to operate in the real world. In this paper, we show how the intrinsic feature maps of an object detection CNN can be used to uniquely identify vehicles from a dash-cam feed. Feature maps of a pretrained `YOLO' network are used to create 700 deep integrated feature signatures (DIFS) from 20 different images of 35 vehicles from a high resolution dataset and 340 signatures from 20 different images of 17 vehicles of a lower resolution tracking benchmark dataset. The YOLO network was trained to classify general object categories, e.g. classify a detected object as a `car' or `truck'. 5-Fold nearest neighbor (1NN) classification was used on DIFS created from feature maps in the middle layers of the network to correctly identify unique vehicles at a rate of 96.7\% for the high resolution data and with a rate of 86.8\% for the lower resolution data. We conclude that a deep neural detection network trained to distinguish between different classes can be successfully used to identify different instances belonging to the same class, through the creation of deep integrated feature signatures (DIFS).


An Autonomous Team of Search and Rescue Robots

AAAI Conferences

The difficult task of searching for victims in devastated areas due to earth quakes or similar catastrophes has not been solved. So many strategies and techniques, using all kind of available resources, has been developed by different rescue teams specially in those parts of the world where natural disasters are often. A possible approach in order to aid in such labor and to avoid human beings from risk, is to use robots capable to go inside of these areas and look for any signal of life. A machine that fulfills this requirements must have a robust hardware and software, to face the most demanding environmental conditions and to achieve search and exploration tasks systematically. This project pursues in a first stage, the development of simple strategies that robots can use to look for victims where the structure of these places is unknown and contains obstacles in non-patterned positions.


2D Car Detection in Radar Data with PointNets

arXiv.org Machine Learning

For many automated driving functions, a highly accurate perception of the vehicle environment is a crucial prerequisite. Modern high-resolution radar sensors generate multiple radar targets per object, which makes these sensors particularly suitable for the 2D object detection task. This work presents an approach to detect object hypotheses solely depending on sparse radar data using PointNets. In literature, only methods are presented so far which perform either object classification or bounding box estimation for objects. In contrast, this method facilitates a classification together with a bounding box estimation of objects using a single radar sensor. To this end, PointNets are adjusted for radar data performing 2D object classification with segmentation, and 2D bounding box regression in order to estimate an amodal bounding box. The algorithm is evaluated using an automatically created dataset which consist of various realistic driving maneuvers. The results show the great potential of object detection in high-resolution radar data using PointNets.