Kotłowski, Wojciech, Warmuth, Manfred K.

Most of machine learning deals with vector parameters. Ideally we would like to take higher order information into account and make use of matrix or even tensor parameters. However the resulting algorithms are usually inefficient. Here we address on-line learning with matrix parameters. It is often easy to obtain online algorithm with good generalization performance if you eigendecompose the current parameter matrix in each trial (at a cost of $O(n^3)$ per trial). Ideally we want to avoid the decompositions and spend $O(n^2)$ per trial, i.e. linear time in the size of the matrix data. There is a core trade-off between the running time and the generalization performance, here measured by the regret of the on-line algorithm (total gain of the best off-line predictor minus the total gain of the on-line algorithm). We focus on the key matrix problem of rank $k$ Principal Component Analysis in $\mathbb{R}^n$ where $k \ll n$. There are $O(n^3)$ algorithms that achieve the optimum regret but require eigendecompositions. We develop a simple algorithm that needs $O(kn^2)$ per trial whose regret is off by a small factor of $O(n^{1/4})$. The algorithm is based on the Follow the Perturbed Leader paradigm. It replaces full eigendecompositions at each trial by the problem finding $k$ principal components of the current covariance matrix that is perturbed by Gaussian noise.

Warmuth, Manfred K., Kuzmin, Dima

In each trial the current instance is projected onto a probabilistically chosen low dimensional subspace.The total expected quadratic approximation error equals the total quadratic approximation error of the best subspace chosen in hindsight plus some additional term that grows linearly in dimension of the subspace but logarithmically inthe dimension of the instances.

Cesa-bianchi, Nicolò, Gaillard, Pierre, Lugosi, Gabor, Stoltz, Gilles

Mirror descent with an entropic regularizer is known to achieve shifting regret bounds that are logarithmic in the dimension. This is done using either a carefully designed projection or by a weight sharing technique. Via a novel unified analysis, we show that these two approaches deliver essentially equivalent bounds on a notion of regret generalizing shifting, adaptive, discounted, and other related regrets. Our analysis also captures and extends the generalized weight sharing technique of Bousquet and Warmuth, and can be refined in several ways, including improvements for small losses and adaptive tuning of parameters.

Pacchiano, Aldo, Chatterji, Niladri S., Bartlett, Peter L.

We present a generalization of the adversarial linear bandits framework, where the underlying losses are kernel functions (with an associated reproducing kernel Hilbert space) rather than linear functions. We study a version of the exponential weights algorithm and bound its regret in this setting. Under conditions on the eigendecay of the kernel we provide a sharp characterization of the regret for this algorithm. When we have polynomial eigendecay $\mu_j \le \mathcal{O}(j^{-\beta})$, we find that the regret is bounded by $\mathcal{R}_n \le \mathcal{O}(n^{\beta/(2(\beta-1))})$; while under the assumption of exponential eigendecay $\mu_j \le \mathcal{O}(e^{-\beta j })$, we get an even tighter bound on the regret $\mathcal{R}_n \le \mathcal{O}(n^{1/2}\log(n)^{1/2})$. We also study the full information setting when the underlying losses are kernel functions and present an adapted exponential weights algorithm and a conditional gradient descent algorithm.

Ghai, Udaya, Hazan, Elad, Singer, Yoram

The (stochastic) gradient descent and the multiplicative update method are probably the most popular algorithms in machine learning. We introduce and study a new regularization which provides a unification of the additive and multiplicative updates. This regularization is derived from an hyperbolic analogue of the entropy function, which we call hypentropy. It is motivated by a natural extension of the multiplicative update to negative numbers. The hypentropy has a natural spectral counterpart which we use to derive a family of matrix-based updates that bridge gradient methods and the multiplicative method for matrices. While the latter is only applicable to positive semi-definite matrices, the spectral hypentropy method can naturally be used with general rectangular matrices. We analyze the new family of updates by deriving tight regret bounds. We study empirically the applicability of the new update for settings such as multiclass learning, in which the parameters constitute a general rectangular matrix.