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Nonparametric Divergence Estimation with Applications to Machine Learning on Distributions

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Low-dimensional embedding, manifold learning, clustering, classification, and anomaly detection are among the most important problems in machine learning. The existing methods usually consider the case when each instance has a fixed, finite-dimensional feature representation. Here we consider a different setting. We assume that each instance corresponds to a continuous probability distribution. These distributions are unknown, but we are given some i.i.d. samples from each distribution. Our goal is to estimate the distances between these distributions and use these distances to perform low-dimensional embedding, clustering/classification, or anomaly detection for the distributions. We present estimation algorithms, describe how to apply them for machine learning tasks on distributions, and show empirical results on synthetic data, real word images, and astronomical data sets.


Graph Scan Statistics With Uncertainty

AAAI Conferences

Scan statistics is one of the most popular approaches for anomaly detection in spatial and network data. In practice, there are numerous sources of uncertainty in the observed data. However, most prior works have overlooked such uncertainty, which can affect the accuracy and inferences of such methods. In this paper, we develop the first systematic approach to incorporating uncertainty in scan statistics. We study two formulations for robust scan statistics, one based on the sample average approximation and the other using a max-min objective. We show that uncertainty significantly increases the computational complexity of these problems. Rigorous algorithms and efficient heuristics for both formulations are developed with justification of theoretical bounds. We evaluate our proposed methods on synthetic and real datasets, and we observe that our methods give significant improvement in the detection power as well as optimization objective, relative to a baseline.


Anomaly Detection with Score functions based on Nearest Neighbor Graphs

Neural Information Processing Systems

We propose a novel non-parametric adaptive anomaly detection algorithm for high dimensional data based on score functions derived from nearest neighbor graphs on n-point nominal data. Anomalies are declared whenever the score of a test sample falls below q, which is supposed to be the desired false alarm level. The resulting anomaly detector is shown to be asymptotically optimal in that it is uniformly most powerful for the specified false alarm level, q, for the case when the anomaly density is a mixture of the nominal and a known density. Our algorithm is computationally efficient, being linear in dimension and quadratic in data size. It does not require choosing complicated tuning parameters or function approximation classes and it can adapt to local structure such as local change in dimensionality. We demonstrate the algorithm on both artificial and real data sets in high dimensional feature spaces.


Online Multivariate Anomaly Detection and Localization for High-dimensional Settings

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This paper considers the real-time detection of anomalies in high-dimensional systems. The goal is to detect anomalies quickly and accurately so that the appropriate countermeasures could be taken in time, before the system possibly gets harmed. We propose a sequential and multivariate anomaly detection method that scales well to high-dimensional datasets. The proposed method follows a nonparametric, i.e., data-driven, and semi-supervised approach, i.e., trains only on nominal data. Thus, it is applicable to a wide range of applications and data types. Thanks to its multivariate nature, it can quickly and accurately detect challenging anomalies, such as changes in the correlation structure and stealth low-rate cyberattacks. Its asymptotic optimality and computational complexity are comprehensively analyzed. In conjunction with the detection method, an effective technique for localizing the anomalous data dimensions is also proposed. We further extend the proposed detection and localization methods to a supervised setup where an additional anomaly dataset is available, and combine the proposed semi-supervised and supervised algorithms to obtain an online learning algorithm under the semi-supervised framework. The practical use of proposed algorithms are demonstrated in DDoS attack mitigation, and their performances are evaluated using a real IoT-botnet dataset and simulations.


Anomaly Detection at Scale: The Case for Deep Distributional Time Series Models

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This paper introduces a new methodology for detecting anomalies in time series data, with a primary application to monitoring the health of (micro-) services and cloud resources. The main novelty in our approach is that instead of modeling time series consisting of real values or vectors of real values, we model time series of probability distributions over real values (or vectors). This extension to time series of probability distributions allows the technique to be applied to the common scenario where the data is generated by requests coming in to a service, which is then aggregated at a fixed temporal frequency. Our method is amenable to streaming anomaly detection and scales to monitoring for anomalies on millions of time series. We show the superior accuracy of our method on synthetic and public real-world data. On the Yahoo Webscope data set, we outperform the state of the art in 3 out of 4 data sets and we show that we outperform popular open-source anomaly detection tools by up to 17% average improvement for a real-world data set.