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Semi-supervised Deep Reinforcement Learning in Support of IoT and Smart City Services

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Abstract--Smart services are an important element of the smart cities and the Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystems where the intelligence behind the services is obtained and improved through the sensory data. Providing a large amount of training data is not always feasible; therefore, we need to consider alternative ways that incorporate unlabeled data as well. In recent years, Deep reinforcement learning (DRL) has gained great success in several application domains. It is an applicable method for IoT and smart city scenarios where auto-generated data can be partially labeled by users' feedback for training purposes. In this paper, we propose a semi-supervised deep reinforcement learning model that fits smart city applications as it consumes both labeled and unlabeled data to improve the performance and accuracy of the learning agent. To the best of our knowledge, the proposed model is the first investigation that extends deep reinforcement learning to the semi-supervised paradigm. As a case study of smart city applications, we focus on smart buildings and apply the proposed model to the problem of indoor localization based on BLE signal strength. Indoor localization is the main component of smart city services since people spend significant time in indoor environments. Our model learns the best action policies that lead to a close estimation of the target locations with an improvement of 23% in terms of distance to the target and at least 67% more received rewards compared to the supervised DRL model. The rapid development of Internet of Things (IoT) technologies motivated researchers and developers to think about new kinds of smart services that extract knowledge from IoT generated data. The scarcity of labeled data is a main issue for developing such solutions especially for IoT applications where a large number of sensors participate in generating data without being able to obtain class labels corresponding to the collected data. This publication was made possible by NPRP grant# [71113-1-199] from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of Qatar Foundation). The statements made herein are solely the responsibility of the authors.


Path Planning in Support of Smart Mobility Applications using Generative Adversarial Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This paper describes and evaluates the use of Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) for path planning in support of smart mobility applications such as indoor and outdoor navigation applications, individualized wayfinding for people with disabilities (e.g., vision impairments, physical disabilities, etc.), path planning for evacuations, robotic navigations, and path planning for autonomous vehicles. We propose an architecture based on GANs to recommend accurate and reliable paths for navigation applications. The proposed system can use crowd-sourced data to learn the trajectories and infer new ones. The system provides users with generated paths that help them navigate from their local environment to reach a desired location. As a use case, we experimented with the proposed method in support of a wayfinding application in an indoor environment. Our experiments assert that the generated paths are correct and reliable. The accuracy of the classification task for the generated paths is up to 99% and the quality of the generated paths has a mean opinion score of 89%.


A CNN-LSTM Quantifier for Single Access Point CSI Indoor Localization

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This paper proposes a combined network structure between convolutional neural network (CNN) and long-short term memory (LSTM) quantifier for WiFi fingerprinting indoor localization. In contrast to conventional methods that utilize only spatial data with classification models, our CNN-LSTM network extracts both space and time features of the received channel state information (CSI) from a single router. Furthermore, the proposed network builds a quantification model rather than a limited classification model as in most of the literature work, which enables the estimation of testing points that are not identical to the reference points. We analyze the instability of CSI and demonstrate a mitigation solution using a comprehensive filter and normalization scheme. The localization accuracy is investigated through extensive on-site experiments with several mobile devices including mobile phone (Nexus 5) and laptop (Intel 5300 NIC) on hundreds of testing locations. Using only a single WiFi router, our structure achieves an average localization error of 2.5~m with $\mathrm{80\%}$ of the errors under 4~m, which outperforms the other reported algorithms by approximately $\mathrm{50\%}$ under the same test environment.


Recurrent Neural Networks For Accurate RSSI Indoor Localization

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This paper proposes recurrent neuron networks (RNNs) for a fingerprinting indoor localization using WiFi. Instead of locating user's position one at a time as in the cases of conventional algorithms, our RNN solution aims at trajectory positioning and takes into account the relation among the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) measurements in a trajectory. Furthermore, a weighted average filter is proposed for both input RSSI data and sequential output locations to enhance the accuracy among the temporal fluctuations of RSSI. The results using different types of RNN including vanilla RNN, long short-term memory (LSTM), gated recurrent unit (GRU) and bidirectional LSTM (BiLSTM) are presented. On-site experiments demonstrate that the proposed structure achieves an average localization error of $0.75$ m with $80\%$ of the errors under $1$ m, which outperforms the conventional KNN algorithms and probabilistic algorithms by approximately $30\%$ under the same test environment.


XJTLUIndoorLoc: A New Fingerprinting Database for Indoor Localization and Trajectory Estimation Based on Wi-Fi RSS and Geomagnetic Field

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Abstract--In this paper, we present a new location fingerprinting database comprised of Wi-Fi received signal strength (RSS) and geomagnetic field intensity measured with multiple devices at a multi-floor building in Xi'an Jiatong-Liverpool University, Suzhou, China. We also provide preliminary results of localization and trajectory estimation based on convolutional neural network (CNN) and long short-term memory (LSTM) network with this database. For localization, we map RSS data for a reference point to an image-like, two-dimensional array and then apply CNN which is popular in image and video analysis and recognition. For trajectory estimation, we use a modified random way point model to efficiently generate continuous step traces imitating human walking and train a stacked twolayer LSTM network with the generated data to remember the changing pattern of geomagnetic field intensity against (x, y) coordinates. Experimental results demonstrate the usefulness of our new database and the feasibility of the CNN and LSTMbased localization and trajectory estimation with the database. Index Terms--Indoor localization, trajectory estimation, received signal strength, Wi-Fi fingerprinting, deep learning, CNN, LSTM, geomagnetic field. With the increasing demands for location-aware services and proliferation of smart phones with embedded highprecision sensors, indoor localization has attracted lots of attention from the research community. Global navigation satellite system (GNSS) like global positioning system (GPS), which provides accurate geo-spatial positioning, cannot be used indoors as the radio signals from satellites is easily blocked in an indoor environment.