Collaborating Authors

Probabilistic Neural Programmed Networks for Scene Generation

Neural Information Processing Systems

In this paper we address the text to scene image generation problem. Generative models that capture the variability in complicated scenes containing rich semantics is a grand goal of image generation. Complicated scene images contain rich visual elements, compositional visual concepts, and complicated relations between objects. Generative models, as an analysis-by-synthesis process, should encompass the following three core components: 1) the generation process that composes the scene; 2) what are the primitive visual elements and how are they composed; 3) the rendering of abstract concepts into their pixel-level realizations. We propose PNP-Net, a variational auto-encoder framework that addresses these three challenges: it flexibly composes images with a dynamic network structure, learns a set of distribution transformers that can compose distributions based on semantics, and decodes samples from these distributions into realistic images.

GENESIS: Generative Scene Inference and Sampling with Object-Centric Latent Representations Machine Learning

Generative models are emerging as promising tools in robotics and reinforcement learning. Yet, even though tasks in these domains typically involve distinct objects, most state-of-the-art methods do not explicitly capture the compositional nature of visual scenes. Two exceptions, MONet and IODINE, decompose scenes into objects in an unsupervised fashion via a set of latent variables. Their underlying generative processes, however, do not account for component interactions. Hence, neither of them allows for principled sampling of coherent scenes. Here we present GENESIS, the first object-centric generative model of visual scenes capable of both decomposing and generating complete scenes by explicitly capturing relationships between scene components. GENESIS parameterises a spatial GMM over pixels which is encoded by component-wise latent variables that are inferred sequentially or sampled from an autoregressive prior. We train GENESIS on two publicly available datasets and probe the information in the latent representations through a set of classification tasks, outperforming several baselines.

Attend, Infer, Repeat: Fast Scene Understanding with Generative Models

Neural Information Processing Systems

We present a framework for efficient inference in structured image models that explicitly reason about objects. We achieve this by performing probabilistic inference using a recurrent neural network that attends to scene elements and processes them one at a time. Crucially, the model itself learns to choose the appropriate number of inference steps. We use this scheme to learn to perform inference in partially specified 2D models (variable-sized variational auto-encoders) and fully specified 3D models (probabilistic renderers). We show that such models learn to identify multiple objects - counting, locating and classifying the elements of a scene - without any supervision, e.g., decomposing 3D images with various numbers of objects in a single forward pass of a neural network at unprecedented speed.

GIRAFFE: Representing Scenes as Compositional Generative Neural Feature Fields


Deep generative models allow for photorealistic image synthesis at high resolutions. But for many applications, this is not enough: content creation also needs to be controllable. While several recent works investigate how to disentangle underlying factors of variation in the data, most of them operate in 2D and hence ignore that our world is three-dimensional. Further, only few works consider the compositional nature of scenes. Our key hypothesis is that incorporating a compositional 3D scene representation into the generative model leads to more controllable image synthesis.

Copulas as High-Dimensional Generative Models: Vine Copula Autoencoders

Neural Information Processing Systems

We introduce the vine copula autoencoder (VCAE), a flexible generative model for high-dimensional distributions built in a straightforward three-step procedure. Second, the multivariate distribution of the encoded data is estimated with vine copulas. Third, a generative model is obtained by combining the estimated distribution with the decoder part of the AE. As such, the proposed approach can transform any already trained AE into a flexible generative model at a low computational cost. This is an advantage over existing generative models such as adversarial networks and variational AEs which can be difficult to train and can impose strong assumptions on the latent space.