Performance Impact Caused by Hidden Bias of Training Data for Recognizing Textual Entailment

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The quality of training data is one of the crucial problems when a learning-centered approach is employed. This paper proposes a new method to investigate the quality of a large corpus designed for the recognizing textual entailment (RTE) task. The proposed method, which is inspired by a statistical hypothesis test, consists of two phases: the first phase is to introduce the predictability of textual entailment labels as a null hypothesis which is extremely unacceptable if a target corpus has no hidden bias, and the second phase is to test the null hypothesis using a Naive Bayes model. The experimental result of the Stanford Natural Language Inference (SNLI) corpus does not reject the null hypothesis. Therefore, it indicates that the SNLI corpus has a hidden bias which allows prediction of textual entailment labels from hypothesis sentences even if no context information is given by a premise sentence. This paper also presents the performance impact of NN models for RTE caused by this hidden bias.


Multi-Entity Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis With Context, Entity and Aspect Memory

AAAI Conferences

Inspired by recent works in Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis (ABSA) on product reviews and faced with more complex posts on social media platforms mentioning multiple entities as well as multiple aspects, we define a novel task called Multi-Entity Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis (ME-ABSA). This task aims at fine-grained sentiment analysis of (entity, aspect) combinations, making the well-studied ABSA task a special case of it. To address the task, we propose an innovative method that models Context memory, Entity memory and Aspect memory, called CEA method. Our experimental results show that our CEA method achieves a significant gain over several baselines, including the state-of-the-art method for the ABSA task, and their enhanced versions, on datasets for ME-ABSA and ABSA tasks. The in-depth analysis illustrates the significant advantage of the CEA method over baseline methods for several hard-to-predict post types. Furthermore, we show that the CEA method is capable of generalizing to new (entity, aspect) combinations with little loss of accuracy. This observation indicates that data annotation in real applications can be largely simplified.


Sequence to Sequence Learning for Query Expansion

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Using sequence to sequence algorithms for query expansion has not been explored yet in Information Retrieval literature nor in Question-Answering's. We tried to fill this gap in the literature with a custom Query Expansion engine trained and tested on open datasets. Starting from open datasets, we built a Query Expansion training set using sentence-embeddings-based Keyword Extraction. We therefore assessed the ability of the Sequence to Sequence neural networks to capture expanding relations in the words embeddings' space.


Deeply Moving: Deep Learning for Sentiment Analysis

@machinelearnbot

Recursive Deep Models for Semantic Compositionality Over a Sentiment Treebank Semantic word spaces have been very useful but cannot express the meaning of longer phrases in a principled way. Further progress towards understanding compositionality in tasks such as sentiment detection requires richer supervised training and evaluation resources and more powerful models of composition. To remedy this, we introduce a Sentiment Treebank. It includes fine grained sentiment labels for 215,154 phrases in the parse trees of 11,855 sentences and presents new challenges for sentiment compositionality. To address them, we introduce the Recursive Neural Tensor Network.


Learning Latent Opinions for Aspect-level Sentiment Classification

AAAI Conferences

Aspect-level sentiment classification aims at detecting the sentiment expressed towards a particular target in a sentence. Based on the observation that the sentiment polarity is often related to specific spans in the given sentence, it is possible to make use of such information for better classification. On the other hand, such information can also serve as justifications associated with the predictions.We propose a segmentation attention based LSTM model which can effectively capture the structural dependencies between the target and the sentiment expressions with a linear-chain conditional random field (CRF) layer. The model simulates human's process of inferring sentiment information when reading: when given a target, humans tend to search for surrounding relevant text spans in the sentence before making an informed decision on the underlying sentiment information.We perform sentiment classification tasks on publicly available datasets on online reviews across different languages from SemEval tasks and social comments from Twitter. Extensive experiments show that our model achieves the state-of-the-art performance while extracting interpretable sentiment expressions.